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Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, or HP, is a disease in which the lungs become inflamed from breathing in foreign substances, such as molds, dusts, and chemicals.

Results: 1 to 20 of 61

Hay fever and dust mite allergies: Allergic rhinitis: Non-drug interventions

Various medications and allergen-specific immunotherapy often provide effective relief from the symptoms of hay fever or dust mite allergies. But there are also other ways to prevent or relieve the symptoms.The most effective way to prevent the symptoms is by avoiding exposure to allergens (allergy triggers) in the first place. Whereas some allergens are easy to avoid, others are very difficult or impossible to avoid. Trying to prevent contact with allergens, such as dust mites in your home, is not always worth the amount of effort involved.If the allergy symptoms are mild, saline (salt water) solutions might also help relieve symptoms in the nasal area.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: February 4, 2014

Hay fever and dust mite allergies: Medication for the relief of allergic rhinitis

People with seasonal hay fever often have very severe, but temporary, symptoms – for example during the grass pollen season. Others are allergic to dust mites and have allergy symptoms all year round. Whatever is causing the symptoms of allergic rhinitis, particular medications can relieve them.Although medications for the treatment of allergic rhinitis can have side effects, they are usually well tolerated. Various medications can reduce the symptoms. The most suitable one will depend on a person’s individual situation and can be discussed with a doctor.Factors that influence the choice of medication include the severity and type of allergic rhinitis (seasonal or year-round), as well as personal preferences and experiences. For instance, some people would prefer to take tablets rather than use a nasal spray. Others might feel tired when they use a certain medication, and decide to try a different one instead. Age and other things like medical conditions or pregnancy can play a role too.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: February 4, 2014

Hay fever and dust mite allergies: Overview

Various medications and allergen-specific immunotherapy often provide effective relief from the symptoms of hay fever or dust mite allergies. But there are also other ways to prevent or relieve the symptoms.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: February 4, 2014

Hay fever and dust mite allergies: Allergen-specific immunotherapy

People who have hay fever or a dust mite allergy sneeze a lot, and have a runny or stuffy nose. Many of those who have very severe and bothersome symptoms try out allergen-specific immunotherapy. This treatment aims to make the immune system “get used to” the substances triggering the allergy, so that it no longer reacts as strongly to them.The goal of allergen-specific immunotherapy is to reduce allergy symptoms in the medium to long term. It has to be repeated regularly and takes quite a long time to start working. In the past this treatment was commonly called "desensitization" or "hyposensitization." These terms describe what it aims to do: make the immune system less sensitive. In people who are allergic to something, their body is oversensitive or hypersensitive to an allergen (the substance that causes their allergic reaction). Their body produces antibodies to fight the allergen, even though the allergen is harmless. These antibodies are part of a chain reaction that leads to allergy symptoms. In allergen-specific immunotherapy, people are given allergen extracts to try to train their body to react differently: It is a bit like being “vaccinated” against your own allergy.Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) cannot be used for every allergy. It is called "specific" because the allergen extract has to be tailored to the individual person's allergic response. There are still no suitable SIT extracts for some substances that cause allergies. But there are extracts for many of the common allergens found in the air, for mold, for animal allergens, and for some toxic substances (like the poison in bee stings).

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: February 4, 2014

Potassium containing toothpastes for dentine hypersensitivity

Dentine hypersensitivity is a sharp, sudden pain arising from the teeth when exposed to touch or hot and cold foods. If dental disease is not the cause of the pain, toothpastes containing potassium have been recommended to reduce tooth sensitivity. This review of trials found there was not enough evidence to show that potassium is effective in desensitising teeth. More research is needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Probiotics in infants for prevention of allergic disease and food hypersensitivity

There is insufficient evidence to recommend the addition of probiotics to infant feeds for prevention of allergic disease or food reactions. Reactions to foods and allergies (including asthma, eczema and hay fever) are common and may be increasing in developed countries. Many infants become sensitised to foods, including infant formula, through their gastrointestinal tract, a process that may be affected by the composition of the intestinal bacteria. Attempts to promote the growth of normal gastrointestinal bacteria and prevent sensitisation to foods have included the use of probiotics. Probiotics are live bacteria that colonize the gastrointestinal tract and provide a health benefit to the host. This review found that probiotics added to infant feeds may help prevent infant eczema, with one study suggesting the benefit may persist to four years of age. However, concerns regarding the quality of studies, inconsistency of findings between studies, and the fact that the benefits did not persist if restricted to infants with evidence of sensitisation to allergens, suggests that further studies are needed to confirm these results.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

This review examines strategies to enable the continued use of the antibiotic cotrimoxazole in patients with HIV/AIDS to treat or prevent opportunistic infections in patients who previously experienced hypersensitivity to this drug.

Opportunistic infections are a threat to the lives and health of people living with HIV. Cotrimoxazole, an antibiotic also known as trimethoprim‐sulfamethoxazole, is used in the treatment and prevention of several opportunistic infections. In patients with HIV/AIDS, cotrimoxazole can cause more drug‐related side effects than in the general population. However, there are not many effective alternatives for this drug, which is also by far the cheapest option available. When a patient with HIV experiences a side effect related to cotrimoxazole, often the drug is continued (treating‐through) or reintroduced at a later date, either using increasingly larger doses (desensitization), or immediately starting at the full dose (rechallenge). This systematic review is the first to examine the differences in how patients are able to tolerate these strategies.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Eczema: Can eliminating particular foods help?

There is no proof that elimination diets can reduce eczema in babies or children who do not have established food allergies. There has been very little research on elimination diets in adults with eczema.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: September 26, 2013

Non-drug interventions for asthma

Medication is important in the treatment of asthma, to prevent asthma attacks and keep the condition under control. But many people would like to do more than just take medication. Some of the additional things that can be done have been scientifically proven to help, whereas others have not.A lot of people use special breathing techniques to try to cope better with asthma attacks. If someone reacts to certain asthma triggers, they can try to avoid them as best as possible. Regular exercise and appropriate levels of sport can help you keep fit and prevent asthma symptoms. One of the most important things you can do is stop smoking – or not start smoking in the first place.Many people with asthma also try out “alternative” treatments like herbal medicine or acupuncture. But it is often not clear whether, and how well, these approaches work and what side effects they might have.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: February 26, 2014

Pregnancy and birth: Asthma in pregnancy

Many pregnant women who have asthma worry that their medication might harm their child. But most asthma medications are considered to be safe in pregnancy too. Untreated asthma, on the other hand, can have serious consequences.It is estimated that about 1 out of 5 pregnant women with asthma need treatment for asthma attacks. But good asthma control, particularly with the regular use of inhaled corticosteroids, can prevent these attacks. And there are a number of things you can do to avoid possible triggers of asthma attacks.In many women who have asthma, being pregnant does not affect their symptoms. Their symptoms sometimes even get better at first. But the physical changes that happen during pregnancy make asthma worse in 1 out of 3 women. Towards the end of pregnancy it often becomes increasingly difficult to stay physically active. Carrying the extra weight around can even make women who do not have asthma feel out of breath. Many cannot sleep properly, and feel tired and exhausted.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: February 26, 2014

Asthma: Symptoms and diagnosis

In people with asthma, the airways are overly sensitive. This chronic disease typically comes in episodes or attacks of wheezing, coughing and shortness of breath. But other diseases can have similar symptoms. So before starting with treatment, it is important to find out what exactly is causing the breathing problems.The mucous membranes lining the airways of people with chronic asthma are constantly on stand-by, ready to trigger an inflammatory response. This means that certain substances can set off a very rapid and very intense reaction. Compared to people who have healthy lungs, their mucous membranes are red and swollen, and more blood flows through them. The cells in the membranes start producing thicker mucus. If an asthma trigger is also present, the muscles surrounding the walls of the airways tighten as well. Together, all of these factors cause the bronchi (lung airway passages) to narrow and prevent air from flowing freely in and out of the lungs. This leads to shortness of breath.A severe asthma attack feels somewhat like trying to breathe only through a straw for a few minutes. Even if you blow air into it and suck air out of it as hard as you can, you are unable to get enough air into and out of your lungs.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: February 26, 2014

Allergy Shots and Allergy Drops for Adults and Children: A Review of the Research

This summary will cover: What allergies are How allergies are treated What researchers found about how well allergy shots and allergy drops work Possible side effects of allergy shots and allergy drops This summary can help you talk with your doctor about whether allergy shots or allergy drops might be right for you or your child.

Comparative Effectiveness Review Summary Guides for Consumers [Internet] - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: August 22, 2013

Allergen-specific immunotherapy in asthma

In a lot of people, asthma is closely linked to an allergy. Their asthma attacks are mainly triggered by allergy-causing substances such as pollen, dust mites or animal fur. Allergen-specific immunotherapy might be considered as a treatment for this kind of asthma.The aim of this treatment is to prevent asthma attacks by making the body less sensitive to the allergy-causing substances. It is also known as desensitization or hyposensitization.In allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), people are repeatedly given small amounts of the substances that they are allergic to. This is meant to gradually make them less oversensitive to the substances. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is only possible if extracts of the allergen (the substance that triggers the allergy) are available for the treatment. This is currently the case for things like animal hair, dust mites, pollen, mold and the poison in insect stings.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: February 26, 2014

Conjunctivitis: Overview

The inside of the eyelid is called the conjunctiva. Conjunctivitis makes the eyes red and inflamed. Often, both eyes are affected.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: November 7, 2012

Sinusitis: Overview

Stuffed-up nose, pain in the forehead and jaw, as well as coughing are the typical symptoms of an inflammation of the sinuses, also called sinusitis. Sinusitis can be acute or chronic.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: November 27, 2012

Shopping tips for people with lactose intolerance

People who are sensitive to lactose have to read the labels on food packaging very carefully. We have put together some information about what people with a lactose intolerance should be aware of when shopping for food.Nowadays, all packaged foods are labelled with the following information:Best before dateAll ingredientsIngredients that frequently cause allergies or intolerancesSometimes also nutritional information and calorie content

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: February 2, 2012

Eczema in children: Can prebiotics or probiotics help prevent it?

Probiotic supplements for pregnant women and babies can prevent the development of eczema in some children. Probiotics have been better researched than prebiotics.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: September 26, 2013

Asthma: Information for parents

Asthma affects many children and teenagers: About 5 to 10 out of 100 young people have asthma symptoms. It is perfectly normal for parents to worry about this problem. But asthma can be managed with medication and non-drug interventions.A family's daily life does not need to be turned upside down if a child has asthma. It is important for the child to learn to manage their disease on their own. As parents, you can help keep the asthma under control by getting good treatment. You can also support your child by helping him or her to accept the disease and lead as normal a life as possible.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: February 26, 2014

Daily administration of small, incremental amounts of egg protein for treatment of egg allergy

Until recently, the only practical option for people with food allergies was a strict avoidance of allergen‐containing food. It is difficult to avoid egg because it is found in many foods. Even with avoidance, the fear of accidental ingestion from mislabelled foods or cross‐contamination is an ever‐present fear for even the most careful of food‐allergic individuals. Accidental consumption of egg‐containing foods might cause a life‐threatening event. Although there are only a small number of published studies, there is a new type of treatment for egg allergy called 'oral immunotherapy' (also known as 'oral desensitization' or 'vaccination'). This is comprised of daily consumption of a small amount of egg protein, which is gradually increased over time until a full serving is reached. This method could alter the allergic response to the egg protein by the body’s immune system, increasing the amount of egg that can be eaten without inducing an adverse reaction.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

What treatments can be used to prevent and treat alveolar osteitis (dry socket)?

Dry socket is a condition that sometimes arises when teeth have been extracted and is more likely to occur following extraction of wisdom teeth in the lower jaw. It is thought to be linked to the loss of some or all of the blood clot that forms at the bottom of a socket after a tooth is taken out, although other factors are probably also involved. Dry socket can be very painful for several days after an extraction and people with this condition can also experience bad breath. The condition can result in more visits to the dentist or dental hospital and other inconveniences such as time lost from work.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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