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Results: 15

Corticosteroids including ACTH for childhood epilepsy other than epileptic spasms

The role of corticosteroids in children with epilepsy is yet to be established.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

How does the pituitary gland work?

The pituitary gland (hypophysis) controls important body functions and the hormonal system. It is a protrusion at the base of the brain and about the size of a pea or cherry, which is why it is called “hypophysis” (Greek for “growth attached below”). The gland lies well protected in a small cavity of the cranial bones, level with the nose, and in the middle of the head.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: April 26, 2011

Drugs for treating headache after a lumbar puncture

Lumbar puncture is an invasive procedure by which medical personnel try to get a sample of cerebrospinal fluid though a needle inserted into the lower lumbar area for diagnostic purposes (i.e. meningitis or subarachnoid haemorrhage). It is also used to inject medications such as anaesthetics and analgesics to perform a regional anaesthesia or chemotherapy. Post‐dural puncture headache (PDPH) is the most common complication of a lumbar puncture. The symptoms are a constant headache that worsens in the upright position and improves when lying down and resolves spontaneously within five to seven days. Numerous medications are used in clinical practice to treat PDPH, so the aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of these drugs.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

The effect of the immunosuppressive drug cyclophosphamide in people with multiple sclerosis

MS is a chronic disease of the nervous system affecting young and middle‐aged adults. MS is supposed to be related to the immune system. CFX is an immunosuppressive drug used for various autoimmune diseases. As its use for MS is controversial, the Authors of this review aimed to assess CFX efficacy for patients with progressive MS. Among the pertinent literature, only five studies met the inclusion criteria of minimum methodological quality , with a total of 90 MS patients treated with CFX.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Systemic corticosteroids for acute gout

‐ there is no precise information about side effects and complications. Only a minority of the patients treated with the steroid oral prednisolone reported minor side effects.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Pituitary Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of pituitary tumors.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: October 8, 2014

Etomidate for sedating critically ill people during emergency endotracheal intubation

People who are critically ill often need help breathing. One way to do this is called endotracheal intubation. This involves placing a tube into the windpipe (trachea) and having a ventilator (breathing machine) help the patient breathe.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Childhood Craniopharyngioma Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of childhood craniopharyngioma

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: October 9, 2014

Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the health problems that continue or appear after cancer treatment has ended.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: November 7, 2014

Immunosuppressive treatment for idiopathic membranous nephropathy in adults with nephrotic syndrome

Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) is a disease in which glomerular basement membrane becomes thickening by light microscopy on renal biopsy and it represents a major cause of primary nephrotic syndrome in adults. A combined alkylating agent and corticosteroid regimen had short‐ and long‐term benefits on adult IMN with nephrotic syndrome. Among alkylating agents, cyclophosphamide was safer than chlorambucil. It should be emphasised that the number of included randomised studies with high‐quality design was relatively small and most of the included studies did not have adequate follow‐up and enough power to assess the prespecified outcomes. Meanwhile, this regimen was significantly associated with more withdrawals or hospitalisations. Although a six‐month course of alternating monthly cycles of corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide was recommended by the KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline 2012 as the initial therapy for adult IMN with nephrotic syndrome, clinicians should inform their patients of the lack of high‐quality evidence for these benefits as well as the well‐recognised adverse effects of this therapy. Whether this combined therapy should be indicated in all adult patients at high risk of progression to ESKD or only restricted to those with deteriorating kidney function still remained unclear.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

The use of anti‐inflammatory corticosteroids for treating acute worsening in people with multiple sclerosis

This review is un update of the Cochrane Review, "Corticosteroids or ACTH for acute exacerbations in multiple sclerosis," first published in The Cochrane Library 2000, Issue 4.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Budesonide at different doses for asthma

Budesonide is an inhaled corticosteroid used to treat the inflammation of airways (passages to the lungs) that occurs in asthma. This review presents the effects of budesonide at different doses for people with varying degrees of asthma. In patients with mild‐moderate asthma no important differences were apparent between the lowest dose (200 mcg/d) and the highest dose (1600 mcg/d) for measures of airway opening and symptoms. However, patients with more severe asthma are less likely to experience an acute worsening of their asthma control when a higher dose (1600 mcg/d) is used regularly compared to a lower dose (200 mcg/d). Future research should report results more comprehensively, and should use quality of life questionnaires.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Corticosteroids for myasthenia gravis

Myasthenia gravis is caused by the body's antibodies impairing transmission of nerve impulses to muscles, resulting in fluctuating weakness and fatigue. Acute attacks can be life threatening because of swallowing or breathing difficulties. Seven randomised controlled trials which included in all 199 participants are published. None fulfilled the presently accepted standards of a high‐quality trial. All these studies have risks of bias and have a weak statistical power. Limited evidence from randomised controlled trials suggests that corticosteroids offer short‐term benefit compared with placebo (dummy treatment). This supports the conclusions of observational studies and expert opinion. Limited evidence from randomised controlled trials does not show any difference in efficacy between corticosteroids and either azathioprine or intravenous immunoglobulin. All trials had design flaws which limit the strength of the conclusions. Further randomised controlled trials are needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Budesonide for treatment of active Crohn's disease

Traditional corticosteroids are often used as treatment for active Crohn's disease. Unfortunately, corticosteroids can cause side effects. Budesonide is a newer corticosteroid drug which is quickly metabolized by the liver thereby reducing corticosteroid related side effects. Budesonide is more effective than placebo (fake medicine) or mesalamine for the treatment of active Crohn's disease. Traditional corticosteroids are more effective than budesonide for the treatment of active Crohn's disease, particularly in patients with severe disease. However, budesonide is less likely than traditional corticosteroids to cause side effects.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Interventions for preventing nerve damage caused by cisplatin and other tumour‐inhibiting platinum drugs

We reviewed the evidence about the effect of treatments to prevent or reduce damage to nerves from the anticancer (chemotherapy) drug cisplatin or other platinum‐containing drugs.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Medical Encyclopedia

  • ACTH blood test
    The ACTH test measures the level of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the blood. ACTH is a hormone released from the pituitary gland in the brain.
  • ACTH (cosyntropin) stimulation test
    The ACTH stimulation test measures how well the adrenal glands respond to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). ACTH is a hormone produced in the pituitary gland that stimulates the adrenal glands to release a hormone called cortisol. The man-made form of ACTH is called cosyntropin.
  • Ectopic Cushing syndrome
    Ectopic Cushing syndrome is a form of Cushing syndrome in which a tumor outside the pituitary or adrenal glands produces a hormone called adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).
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Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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