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Effect of CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms on the efficacy of proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a meta-analysis

OBJECTIVE: CYP2C19 polymorphisms have been inconsistently reported to associate with the efficacy of proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based triple therapies for eradicating Helicobacter pylori infection. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine whether CYP2C19 polymorphism affect H. pylori eradication rates obtained with first-line PPI-based triple therapies.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2008

Efficacy of proton-pump inhibitors in children with gastroesophageal reflux disease: a systematic review

INTRODUCTION: Use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in children has increased enormously. However, effectiveness and safety of PPIs for pediatric GERD are under debate.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

Response of unexplained chest pain to proton pump inhibitor treatment in patients with and without objective evidence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

INTRODUCTION: Unexplained chest pain is potentially attributable to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) or oesophageal motility disorders. Reflux chest pain may occur without heartburn. We explored the response of unexplained chest pain to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy in randomised clinical trials (RCTs), differentiating patients with and without objective evidence of GORD.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

Drug Class Review: Proton Pump Inhibitors: Final Report Update 5 [Internet]

Proton pump inhibitors decrease secretion of gastric acid. They act by blocking the last enzyme in the system that actively transports acid from gastric parietal cells into the gastrointestinal lumen, hydrogen–potassium adenosine triphosphatase, also known as the proton pump. Omeprazole, the first drug in this class, was introduced in 1989. Since then, 4 other proton pump inhibitors have been introduced: lansoprazole (1995), rabeprazole (1999), pantoprazole (2000), and esomeprazole (2001). In 2003 omeprazole became available over-the-counter in the United States. The purpose of this review is to compare the benefits and harms of different PPIs.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: May 2009
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Systematic review: proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) for the healing of reflux oesophagitis. A comparison of esomeprazole with other PPIs

This review compared the effectiveness of esomeprazole with other standard-dose proton-pump inhibitors for the treatment of reflux oesophagitis, and found that 40 mg esomeprazole is the most effective treatment currently available. Overall, the findings of the review appear to be supported by the data, but caution is advised given the levels of unexplained statistical variation detected between the studies.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2006

Antiplatelet and Anticoagulant Treatments for Unstable Angina/Non–ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction [Internet]

For patients with unstable angina or non–ST elevation myocardial infarction (UA/NSTEMI), antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications are prescribed to reduce and prevent ischemic events and mortality. There is uncertainty about the optimal dosing and timing of these medications to balance ischemic risk and bleeding risk across different treatment strategies (early invasive, initial conservative, and postdischarge).

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: November 2013
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Drug Class Review: Newer Antiplatelet Agents: Final Update 2 Report [Internet]

We compared the effectiveness and harms of clopidogrel, ticlopidine, extended-release dipyridamole and aspirin and prasugrel in adults with acute coronary syndromes or coronary revascularization (stenting, bypass grafting), ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack, or symptomatic peripheral vascular disease.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: June 2011
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Off-label use of medicines in children: can available evidence avoid useless paediatric trials

This review concluded that there was a large body of evidence on use of proton pump inhibitors in children with gastro-oesophageal disease and these data could be used to avoid unnecessary trials. Limitations in the conduct of the review and the size and nature of included studies mean that the authors’ conclusions need to be treated with some caution.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2009

Meta-analysis: comparative efficacy of different proton-pump inhibitors in triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication

This review compared the efficacy of different proton-pump inhibitors (omeprazole, lansoprazole, rabeprazole and esomeprazole) in standard triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication. The authors concluded that there appears to be no difference in the efficacy of different proton-pump inhibitors. The authors' conclusions are likely to be reliable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2003

Systematic review: standard- and double-dose proton pump inhibitors for the healing of severe erosive oesophagitis - a mixed treatment comparison of randomized controlled trials

This review concluded that 40mg esomeprazole appeared to have higher healing rates than licensed standard- and double-dose proton pump inhibitors, for severe erosive oesophagitis. The evidence presented appeared to support these conclusions, but the reliance on indirect mixed treatment comparisons and the poor reporting of trial characteristics, make it difficult to assess the reliability of the findings.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2009

Proton Pump Inhibitors for Gastrointestinal Conditions: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness [Internet]

The aim of the current review is to summarize current evidence on clinical and cost-effectiveness of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, which may be used to update knowledge mobilization tools developed based on earlier evidence.

Rapid Response Report: Summary with Critical Appraisal - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: June 19, 2015
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Drug Class Review: Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs): Final Update 4 Report [Internet]

We compared the effectiveness and harms of oral or topical nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the treatment of chronic pain from osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, soft tissue pain, back pain, and ankylosing spondylitis.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: November 2010
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Dyspepsia and Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux Disease: Investigation and Management of Dyspepsia, Symptoms Suggestive of Gastro-Oesophageal Reflux Disease, or Both

The guideline applies to adults (aged 18 and over) with symptoms suggestive of dyspepsia, symptoms suggestive of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), or both.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - Internal Clinical Guidelines Team (UK).

Version: September 2014
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Medicines for children with gastro‐oesophageal reflux

Current medicines (e.g. Gaviscon Infant®) aim to thicken stomach contents, neutralise stomach acid (ranitidine, omeprazole, lansoprazole) or help the stomach to empty faster (domperidone). We looked at all available studies to try to find out whether any of the medicines currently used for reflux can help babies and children. We wanted to know whether these medicines make babies and children feel better, or whether test results (such as healing of the lining of the oesophagus, assessed through endoscopy (a small camera passed down the food pipe), or lowering of the amount of acidity in the oesophagus, assessed using a pH probe over 24 hours) get better when these medicines are given.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Pre-Endoscopic Intravenous Proton Pump Inhibitors for Emergency Department Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeds: A Review of Clinical Effectiveness, Cost-Effectiveness and Guidelines [Internet]

The purpose of this report is to review the clinical efficacy of pre-endoscopic intravenous proton pump inhibitors (PPI) for patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) and to review the evidence-based guidelines regarding the use of proton pump inhibitors before endoscopy in patients with UGIB.

Rapid Response Report: Summary with Critical Appraisal - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: February 5, 2016
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Diarrhoea and Vomiting Caused by Gastroenteritis: Diagnosis, Assessment and Management in Children Younger than 5 Years

When young children suddenly experience the onset of diarrhoea, with or without vomiting, infective gastroenteritis is by far the most common explanation. A range of enteric viruses, bacteria and protozoal pathogens may be responsible. Viral infections account for most cases in the developed world. Gastroenteritis is very common, with many infants and young children experiencing more than one episode in a year.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: April 2009
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Analgesics for Osteoarthritis: An Update of the 2006 Comparative Effectiveness Review [Internet]

To update a previous report on the comparative benefits and harms of oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), acetaminophen, over-the-counter supplements (chondroitin and glucosamine), and topical agents (NSAIDs and rubefacients, including capsaicin) for osteoarthritis.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: October 2011
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Diagnosis and Management of Suspected Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis [Internet]

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive fibrotic interstitial lung disease (ILD) of unknown origin. It is a difficult disease to diagnose and often requires the collaborative expertise of a chest physician, radiologist and histopathologist to reach a consensus diagnosis. Most people with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis experience symptoms of breathlessness, which may initially be only on exertion. Cough, with or without sputum is a common symptom. Over time, these symptoms are associated with a decline in lung function, reduced quality of life and ultimately death. Specific pharmacological therapies for IPF are limited but the last decade has seen more trials of new drugs which have had a variable impact on clinical practice. A number of difficulties arise when undertaking clinical trials in IPF in terms of defining precise, diagnostic inclusion criteria and clinically meaningful end-points. However, such trials are the only way by which promising new treatments will come to benefit patients. Furthermore, it is only by performing rigorous clinical trials, we have learned that drugs once widely used to treat IPF may in fact have been harmful. The limitations of current pharmacological therapies for IPF highlight the importance of other forms of treatment including lung transplantation and best supportive care such as oxygen therapy, pulmonary rehabilitation and palliation of symptoms. These are interventions which justifiably require scrutiny in the context of healthcare delivery by the modern NHS. Despite the significant burden of disease caused by IPF, there is currently no established framework within the NHS for its diagnosis and management thus creating an environment in which significant variations in clinical care may occur. In recognition of this, the Department of Health commissioned the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) to produce a guideline aimed at improving the care of people with IPF.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: June 2013
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Tranexamic acid, an agent that promotes blood clotting, for serious or uncontrolled upper gastrointestinal bleeding

Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a common reason for emergency hospital admission. The prognosis is serious. Some patients may die as the result of uncontrolled bleeding.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Ivacaftor (Kalydeco) 150 mg Tablet: For Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis with G551D, G1244E, G1349D, G178R, G551S, S1251N, S1255P, S549N, S549R, or G970R Mutation [Internet]

Cystic fibrosis (CF), an autosomal recessive condition, is the most common fatal genetic disease affecting children and young adults in Canada. It is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene, located on chromosome seven. This gene encodes for a chloride channel that regulates transport of salt and water across cell membranes. When CFTR is dysfunctional, secretions become tenacious and sticky, resulting in pathology in multiple organ systems, most notably the lungs and gastrointestinal tract.

Common Drug Review - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: July 2015
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