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Efficacy and safety of ceftriaxone for uncomplicated gonorrhoea: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

The authors concluded that better efficacy, for uncomplicated gonorrhoea, was found for ceftriaxone 250mg versus cefixime 400mg, and for ceftriaxone 125mg versus spectinomycin 2g. Unexplained statistical variation, potential reporting bias, and a high risk that bias could have affected the pooled results, mean that the authors' conclusions may not be reliable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

Short- versus long-duration antimicrobial treatment for exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: a meta-analysis

This review concluded that short-duration treatment (five days) with antimicrobials appeared as effective as and safer than long-duration treatment (seven to ten days) of patients with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. The authors' conclusions appear likely to be reliable despite a relatively limited search and some potential for selection bias.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2008

Management of Acute Otitis Media: Update

Acute Otitis Media (AOM), a viral or bacterial infection of the ear, is the most common childhood infection for which antibiotics are prescribed in the United States. In 2001, the Southern California Evidence-based Practice Center conducted a systematic review of the evidence comparing treatments of AOM.

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: November 2010
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Chronic Venous Ulcers: A Comparative Effectiveness Review of Treatment Modalities [Internet]

To systematically review whether the use of advanced wound dressings, systemic antibiotics, or venous surgery enhanced the healing of venous ulcers over the use of adequate venous compression.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: December 2013
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Antibiotics for gonorrhoea in pregnancy

Pregnant women with gonorrhoea who take penicillin, spectinomycin or ceftriaxone are much less likely to show signs of infection.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Fluoroquinolones for treating enteric fever

Researchers in The Cochrane Collaboration conducted a review of the effect of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in people enteric fever. After searching for relevant studies, they identified 26 studies involving 3033 patients. Their findings are summarized below.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Are oral antibiotics as effective as a combination of injected and oral antibiotics for kidney infections in children?

Acute pyelonephritis refers to infection of the kidneys and is the most severe form of urinary tract infection (UTI). Acute pyelonephritis causes high fever, vomiting, stomach pain, irritability and poor feeding in infants.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Urinary Tract Infection in Children: Diagnosis, Treatment and Long-term Management

In the past 30–50 years, the natural history of urinary tract infection (UTI) in children has changed as a result of the introduction of antibiotics and improvements in health care. This change has contributed to uncertainty about the most appropriate and effective way to diagnose and treat UTI in children and whether or not investigations and follow-up are justified.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: August 2007
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Screening of Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli in Clinical Fecal Samples: A Review of Diagnostic Accuracy, Clinical Utility, Cost-Effectiveness and Guidelines [Internet]

The purpose of this report is to review the diagnostic accuracy of methods for the identification of Shiga toxigenic E.coli (STEC), the clinical utility of STEC testing, the cost-effectiveness of STEC screening, and the evidence-based guidelines regarding STEC screening.

Rapid Response Report: Summary with Critical Appraisal - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: July 8, 2015
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Infection: Prevention and Control of Healthcare-Associated Infections in Primary and Community Care: Partial Update of NICE Clinical Guideline 2

Since the publication of the NICE clinical guideline on the prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) in primary and community care in 2003, many changes have occurred within the NHS that place the patient firmly at the centre of all activities. First, the NHS Constitution for England defines the rights and pledges that every patient can expect regarding their care. To support this, the Care Quality Commission (CQC), the independent regulator of all health and adult social care in England, ensures that health and social care is safe, and monitors how providers comply with established standards. In addition, the legal framework that underpins the guidance has changed since 2003.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: March 2012
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Screening for Gonorrhea and Chlamydia: Systematic Review to Update the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations [Internet]

Previous research has supported screening for gonorrhea and chlamydia in asymptomatic sexually active women, including pregnant women, who are younger than age 25 years or at increased risk, but not other patient populations.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: September 2014
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Feverish Illness in Children: Assessment and Initial Management in Children Younger Than 5 Years

It is a requirement of the Children’s National Service Framework that all ill children should have access to high-quality, cost-effective, evidence-based care. Because it is difficult to evaluate the severity of the illness, there is a need for evidence-based guidance to inform healthcare professionals about how to judge whether a child who presents with a fever is likely to develop a serious illness. Healthcare professionals also need advice to support their decision on whether to observe the child, perform diagnostic tests, start treatment such as antibiotics or refer onwards for specialist care. The guidance should also include advice on the best ways to detect fever, the management of fever itself, and what to tell parents and carers who have made contact with healthcare services. The guidance should be applicable to primary and secondary care and should take account of the number of agencies that are involved in giving health care and giving advice to parents and carers. It is also important that parental preferences, as well as the child’s best interests in terms of health outcomes, should be taken into account when considering the various options for investigation and treatment.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: May 2013
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Diarrhoea and Vomiting Caused by Gastroenteritis: Diagnosis, Assessment and Management in Children Younger than 5 Years

When young children suddenly experience the onset of diarrhoea, with or without vomiting, infective gastroenteritis is by far the most common explanation. A range of enteric viruses, bacteria and protozoal pathogens may be responsible. Viral infections account for most cases in the developed world. Gastroenteritis is very common, with many infants and young children experiencing more than one episode in a year.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: April 2009
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Bacterial Meningitis and Meningococcal Septicaemia: Management of Bacterial Meningitis and Meningococcal Septicaemia in Children and Young People Younger than 16 Years in Primary and Secondary Care

This guideline covers bacterial meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia, focusing on management of these conditions in children and young people aged younger than 16 years in primary and secondary care, and using evidence of direct relevance to these age groups where available.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: 2010
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Pneumonia: Diagnosis and Management of Community- and Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults

The microbial causes of pneumonia vary according to its origin and the immune constitution of the patient. Pneumonia is classified into community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and pneumonia in the immunocompromised. The guideline development process is guided by its scope - published after stakeholder consultation. This guideline does not cover all aspects of pneumonia, but focuses on areas of uncertainty or variable practice and those considered of greatest clinical importance. Best practice guidance on the diagnosis and management of CAP and HAP is offered, based on systematic analysis of clinical and economic evidence with the aim of reducing mortality and morbidity from pneumonia and maximising resources.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: December 2014
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Drug Allergy: Diagnosis and Management of Drug Allergy in Adults, Children and Young People

All drugs have the potential to cause side effects, also known as ‘adverse drug reactions’, but not all of these are allergic in nature. Other reactions are idiosyncratic, pseudo-allergic or caused by drug intolerance. The British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (BSACI) defines drug allergy as an adverse drug reaction with an established immunological mechanism. The mechanism at presentation may not be apparent from the clinical history and it cannot always be established whether a drug reaction is allergic or non-allergic without investigation. Therefore, this guideline has defined drug allergy as any reaction caused by a drug with clinical features compatible with an immunological mechanism.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: September 2014
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Meta-analysis of cephalosporin versus penicillin treatment of group A streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis in children

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials of cephalosporin versus penicillin treatment of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) tonsillopharyngitis in children.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2004

Treatment of vaginal infections to prevent preterm birth: a meta-analysis

The review evaluated the role of antibiotic treatment for vaginal infections in pregnancy to determine benefits and harms of treatment. The authors concluded that there is little evidence to suggest treatment can reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes, and further research is needed. The conclusions are broadly based on the evidence presented and can be considered reliable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2004

Antibacterial class is not obviously important in outpatient pneumonia: a meta-analysis

This review assessed whether improved clinical and mortality outcomes are achieved for outpatient community acquired pneumonia treated with antibacterials with coverage against atypical organisms. The authors concluded that there was no evidence of superiority for any drug comparison. Given some methodological uncertainties identified in the review process, the extent to which this conclusion was reliable was unclear.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2008

Antibiotics versus placebo in the treatment of women with uncomplicated cystitis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

The authors concluded that clinical and microbiological success was more likely to occur in women with acute uncomplicated cystitis when treated with antibiotics compared to placebo. This was a generally well-conducted review. The authors' conclusion is likely to be reliable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2009

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