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Baclofen for alcohol withdrawal syndrome

This review attempted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of baclofen as a therapy for alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Spasticity in Children and Young People with Non-Progressive Brain Disorders: Management of Spasticity and Co-Existing Motor Disorders and Their Early Musculoskeletal Complications

This guideline covers the management of spasticity and co-existing motor disorders and their early musculoskeletal complications in children and young people (from birth up to their 19th birthday) with non-progressive brain disorders.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: July 2012
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Intrathecal baclofen for treating spasticity in children with cerebral palsy

Spasticity, which is an increase in muscle tone, is the most common difficulty with movement seen in children with cerebral palsy. Baclofen is a medication which acts on receptors in the brain and spinal cord to reduce abnormal muscle tone. It has been used as an oral medication for many years. The disadvantages of oral administration are that only a small amount of the medication crosses the blood‐brain barrier before it can exert an effect, and that the dose is limited by the unwanted effect of excessive sedation. The administration of baclofen into the fluid surrounding the spinal cord overcomes these problems. This treatment is called intrathecal baclofen therapy and it is administered via a pump placed under the skin connected to a catheter which enters the membranes covering the spinal cord to deliver the baclofen directly into the fluid surrounding the spinal cord and brain.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Not enough evidence about the effects of drugs used to try and reduce spasticity in the limbs after spinal cord injury

A major problem after spinal cord injury is muscle resistance to having the arms or legs moved (spasticity). There can also be spasms. This can severely limit a person's mobility and independence, and can cause pain, muscle problems, and sleep difficulties. Treatments to try and reduce spasticity include exercise, and drugs to try and decrease the muscle tone. The review found there was not enough evidence from trials to assess the effects of the range of drugs used to try and relieve spasticity after spinal cord injury. The authors of the review call for more research and make recommendations as to how this research should be conducted.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Safety and effectiveness of medications for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome

Alcohol abuse and dependence can cause serious health problems as well as interpersonal, social, interpersonal and legal consequences. Dependence on alcohol is evident by reduced control over drinking, tolerance to alcohol and withdrawal symptoms. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome develops after stopping or reducing heavy and prolonged alcohol use. The most common symptoms include sweating, a fast pulse rate, tremor, insomnia, nausea or vomiting, transient hallucinations or illusions, agitation, anxiety and seizures. These are the result of changes in the central nervous system in an attempt to maintain normal function with alcohol consumption. Different types of medications are used to safely reduce the severity of withdrawal and the abuse of alcohol.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Pharmacological therapies for maintenance treatments of opium dependence

Opium is obtained from the unripe seed capsules of the poppy plant. Opium is usually used by smoking or by swallowing to create a feeling of euphoria, to provide pleasure or as an analgesic or hypnotic. Cultural attitudes affect the patterns of opioid use among different countries. In the Middle East and south east Asia, opium is used in many cases in social settings and the users do not suffer from considerable social dysfunction. It is used occasionally and mainly in male gatherings but regular use can cause dependence. Opium users have a more stable life style than heroin users and, of those who come for treatment, a higher proportion are married and live with their family.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Efficacy of baclofen on abstinence and craving in alcohol-dependent patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

PURPOSE: We conducted a meta-analysis in order to estimate the efficacy of baclofen on the maintenance of abstinence and the decrease of craving in alcohol-dependent patients.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

The use of different treatment for incoordination of limb movement (ataxia) or tremor in people with multiple sclerosis

MS is a chronic disease of the central nervous system which typically affects both young and middle aged adults. It can result in many different symptoms including ataxia.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Drugs other than those used for epilepsy for treating trigeminal neuralgia

The purpose of this review was to assess the effects of non‐antiepileptic drugs in trigeminal neuralgia.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

The effects of baclofen for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Objectives. Baclofen can relieve gastroesophageal reflux-related symptoms in healthy subjects and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients by reducing the incidence of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of baclofen for the treatment of GERD. Methods. We systematically searched randomized controlled trials published prior to November 2013 from PubMed, Medline, Embase, ScienceDirect, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the Cochrane Central Register of Randomized Controlled Trials. We performed a meta-analysis of all eligible trials. Results. Nine studies were identified with a total of 283 GERD patients and healthy subjects. Comparative analysis provided high quality data supporting the ability of baclofen to promote a short-term decrease in the number of reflux episodes per patient, the average length of reflux episodes, and the incidence of transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. No serious adverse events or death events were reported, and there were no significant differences in the overall adverse events between baclofen and placebo. All reported side effects of baclofen were of mild-to-moderate intensity, and the drug was well tolerated. Conclusion. Abundant evidence suggests that baclofen may be a useful approach for the treatment of GERD patients; however, a larger well-designed research study would further confirm this recommendation.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Examining the effectiveness of intrathecal baclofen on spasticity in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury: a systematic review

OBJECTIVE: To review the available evidence on the effectiveness of intrathecal baclofen in the treatment of spasticity in individuals with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) at least 6 months post-injury or diagnosis.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Pharmacotherapy for Adults With Alcohol-Use Disorders in Outpatient Settings [Internet]

To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy, comparative effectiveness, and harms of medications (both FDA approved and others) for adults with alcohol-use disorders, and to evaluate the evidence from primary care settings.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: May 2014
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Multiple Sclerosis: Management of Multiple Sclerosis in Primary and Secondary Care

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an acquired chronic immune-mediated inflammatory condition of the central nervous system (CNS), affecting both the brain and spinal cord. It affects approximately 100,000 people in the UK. It is the commonest cause of serious physical disability in adults of working age.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: October 2014
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A systematic review of pharmacologic treatments of pain after spinal cord injury

This review concluded that anticonvulsant and analgesic medications demonstrated the strongest evidence for treating pain after spinal cord injury. Some caution should be exercised in interpreting the conclusions as evidence was limited, some studies included mixed populations and not all all details of the review process were reported.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2010

Gabapentin for Adults with Neuropathic Pain: A Review of the Clinical Evidence and Guidelines [Internet]

Gabapentin is an anticonvulsant drug that has been used for a number of off-label indications, including neuropathic pain. It is thought to act by binding to calcium channels and modulating calcium influx, or by blocking new synapse formation. Neuropathic pain tends to be chronic, is complex, and can be difficult to treat effectively. Treatment often involves pharmacologic and physical therapies, although conventional analgesics may not be effective.

Rapid Response Report: Summary with Critical Appraisal - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: September 26, 2014
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Drug Class Review: Skeletal Muscle Relaxants: Final Report [Internet]

Skeletal muscle relaxants are a heterogeneous group of medications commonly used to treat two different types of underlying conditions: spasticity from upper motor neuron syndromes and muscular pain or spasms from peripheral musculoskeletal conditions. The purpose of this report is to determine whether there is evidence that one or more skeletal muscle relaxant is superior to others in terms of efficacy or safety.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: May 2005
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Depression in Adults with a Chronic Physical Health Problem: Treatment and Management

This clinical guideline was commissioned by NICE and developed by the National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health. It sets out clear, evidenceand consensus-based recommendations for healthcare staff on how to treat and manage depression in adults with a chronic physical health problem.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2010
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Treatments for spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the commonest neurological conditions of young adults in the Western world, with an estimated 58,000-63,000 people with the disease in England and Wales. Pain and spasticity are two of the commonest symptoms from which people with MS suffer. A recent survey of members by the MS Society found that 54% reported pain as a current symptom and 74% spasticity. The importance of these symptoms is not simply because of their frequency, but also because of the impact they have on daily life. As the disease progresses, so does the spasticity, resulting in muscle spasms, immobility, disturbed sleep and pain. Disability resulting from spasticity can lead to patients requiring extensive nursing care.

NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme: Executive Summaries - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: 2003

Gamma‐aminobutyric acid agonists for neuroleptic‐induced tardive dyskinesia

Having to take antipsychotic drugs for long periods of time can cause repetitive movements ‐ often of the face and mouth. These are disfiguring and do not necessarily cease once medication is reduced or changed. Gamma‐aminobutyric acid agonists have been evaluated for treating these movement disorders, but, so far, the benefit of this medication seems small and restricted to avoidance of deterioration.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Treatment for cramps in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease

A cramp is a sudden, involuntary painful contraction of a muscle. Many people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neuron disease (MND), experience cramps during the course of the disease. These range from mild cramps that do not affect daily activities and sleep, through to very severe, painful cramps. Some medications that are used to treat cramps in people with no medical condition or with conditions other than ALS have been tested in ALS clinical trials. These medicines include vitamin E, creatine, quinidine, and gabapentin. Other medications such as quinine sulfate, magnesium, lioresal, dantrolene, clonazepam, diphenylhydantoin, and gabapentin have been used to treat cramps in people with ALS but their effectiveness is unknown. In 2006 and 2010 the US Food and Drugs Administration issued warnings concerning the use of quinine sulfate, which was the previously most widely prescribed medication for cramps in the US. This review sought to find out how effective medications and physical treatments for cramps are for people with ALS. The reviewers identified 20 randomised controlled trials in people with ALS comprising a total of 4789 participants. Only one trial, of the drug tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), directly investigated the effectiveness of an intervention for cramps. Thirteen randomised controlled ALS trials investigated cramps secondarily among other variables. The medications comprised vitamin E, baclofen, riluzole, L‐threonine, xaliproden, indinavir, and memantine. Six randomised controlled ALS trials investigated cramps as adverse events. The medications comprised creatine, gabapentin, dextromethorphan, quinidine and lithium. None of the 20 studies could demonstrate any benefit, but the studies were small. Current evidence on the treatment of cramps in ALS is lacking and more research is needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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