Home > Search Results
  • We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information

Results: 14

Vancomycin for prophylaxis against sepsis in preterm neonates

Premature babies have immature immune systems and frequently pick up harmful infections in the hospital. This means they are at high risk of sepsis (life‐threatening bacterial infection). The most common bacteria causing sepsis in neonatal intensive care are coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS). One way of trying to prevent CoNS infection is by infusing low doses of the antibiotic vancomycin (giving the drug by intermittent infusion or continuous drip). The review of trials found that low dose continuous infusions, or low dose intermittent administration, of vancomycin reduce the risk of a baby getting sepsis in the neonatal intensive care unit. There is not enough evidence to show if this approach increases antibiotic resistance in nurseries.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Teicoplanin versus vancomycin for proven or suspected infection

One of the most common bacteria responsible for human diseases is Staphylococcus aureus, which causes mainly skin, lung and blood infections. In many cases, especially in infections acquired inside a hospital, usual antibiotics are ineffective and more aggressive drugs are needed. Teicoplanin and vancomycin are both effective against this bacteria, however, there is a concern that vancomycin may be more toxic, especially for the kidneys. This review identified 24 studies enrolling 2,610 patients comparing teicoplanin and vancomycin in those with either proven or suspected infection. Teicoplanin was as effective as vancomycin for treating infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus with similar results for clinical cure, microbiological cure and death. However, there were less adverse events (skin rash and red man syndrome) and it caused significantly less damage to the kidneys.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Antibiotic drugs for treating skin and soft tissue infections

Skin and soft tissue infections such as impetigo, abscesses, ulcers, and surgical site infections are common infections of the skin. For serious skin and soft tissue infections involving the deeper tissues, the death rate and treatment costs are high. Linezolid and vancomycin are antibiotics that are effective in treating skin and soft tissue infections, particularly infections caused by bacteria that have developed resistance to some antibiotics. This review identified nine RCTs, with a total of 3144 participants, and compared treatment with linezolid against treatment with vancomycin for skin and soft tissue infections. Linezolid was found to be more effective than vancomycin for treating these infections. There were fewer skin complications in the group that were treated with linezolid. There were no differences between the two groups in the number of reported deaths, and those treated with linezolid had shorter lengths of hospital stay than those treated with vancomycin. The daily cost of outpatient therapy was less with oral linezolid than with intravenous vancomycin, although for inpatient treatment, linezolid was more expensive than vancomycin. Well‐designed trials will be required in future to confirm these results, as the trials from which these conclusions were drawn were of poor methodological quality, at high risk of bias, and were funded by the pharmaceutical company that makes linezolid.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Antibiotic therapy for Clostridium difficile‐associated diarrhea in adults

Diarrhea may be a side effect of many commonly used antibiotics, and in some cases may be due to overgrowth of a bacterium called Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) in the colon after other bacteria have been killed. The seriousness of C. difficile‐associated diarrhea (CDAD) can range from being a nuisance, to a life threatening or even fatal disease. The treatment of CDAD is usually cessation of the initiating antibiotic and immediate administration of a different antibiotic. However each of these steps, cessation of the original antibiotic, immediate retreatment, and the choice of a new antibiotic are poorly supported by currently available evidence. Fifteen studies (total 1152 participants) of antibiotic treatment of CDAD were included in this review. Nine different antibiotics were investigated: vancomycin, metronidazole, fusidic acid, nitazoxanide, teicoplanin, rifampin, rifaximin, bacitracin and fidaxomicin (OPT‐80). Most of the studies were compared vancomycin with other antibiotics. Vancomycin was found to be superior to placebo (fake medicine) for improvement of the symptoms of CDAD including resolution of diarrhea. Most of the studies found no statistically significant difference in effectiveness between vancomycin and other antibiotics including metronidazole, fusidic acid, nitazoxanide or rifaximin. Teicoplanin was found to be superior to vancomycin for curing the C. difficile infection. Teicoplanin may be an attractive choice for the treatment of CDAD. However, it is expensive compared to the other antibiotics and is of limited availability. Side effects including surgery and death occurred infrequently in the included studies. There was a total of 18 deaths among 1152 patients in this systematic review. These deaths were attributed to underlying disease rather than CDAD or antibiotic treatment. One study reported a partial colectomy (removal of the diseased part of the colon) after failed CDAD treatment. It is questionable whether mild CDAD needs to be treated. The included studies provide little evidence for antibiotic treatment of severe CDAD as many studies attempted to exclude these patients. Considering the goals of CDAD therapy: improvement of the patient's clinical condition and prevention of spread of C. difficile infection to other patients, one should choose the antibiotic that brings both symptomatic cure and bacteriologic cure. A recommendation to achieve these goals cannot be made because of the small numbers of patients in the included studies and the poor methodological quality of these studies. Over time there have been emerging therapies for the treatment of clostridium difficile such as resins, new biological compounds and probiotics as alternatives to antibiotics. These interventions along with antibiotic therapy for Clostridium difficile‐associated diarrhea need further investigation. 

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Antibiotic therapy for the treatment of methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in people with surgical wounds

Some people having surgery develop wound infections. These are usually caused by bacteria. Most of these wound infections heal naturally, or after treatment with routine antibiotics . However, some bacteria are resistant to routine antibiotics, for example, methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). MRSA infection after surgery is rare, but can occur in wounds (surgical site infections, or SSIs), the chest, or bloodstream (bacteraemia). MRSA SSIs occur in 1% to 33% of people having surgery, depending on the type of surgery concerned; they can be life‐threatening and cause extended hospital stays.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Probiotics for treatment of Clostridium difficile ‐associated colitis in adults

Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a bacterium that attaches itself to the gut wall and is responsible for causing severe diarrhea and sometimes death in patients who have undergone antibiotic therapy for unrelated diseases. Antibiotics tend to wipe out the "good" or protective bacteria in the gut which allows colonization with C. difficile. Probiotics are bacteria and yeasts that resemble the protective bacteria of the gut and have been used in several studies to treat C. difficile infection. Unfortunately, these small studies do not provide enough evidence to support the use of probiotics for treating C. difficile infection.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Antibiotics for preventing early central venous catheter Gram positive infections in people with cancer

People with cancer who undergo anti‐cancer treatment (chemotherapy) often have a tube inserted into a large vein (central venous catheter or CVC) through which their chemotherapy is given. As chemotherapy is usually administered at regular intervals over several months to years, long‐term, semi‐permanent, tunnelled CVCs (TCVCs) or totally implanted devices (TIDs) are frequently used. Despite sterile insertion and post‐insertion care, these long‐term CVCs may become infected. These infections are usually caused by Gram positive bacteria.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

What is the best treatment to manage peritonitis in people on peritoneal dialysis?

People with advanced kidney disease can be treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD) which involves a catheter being permanently inserted into the lining around the abdominal organs (the peritoneum) through the abdominal wall. Sterile fluid is drained in and out several times each day. The peritoneal lining enables movement of salts and toxins that accumulate when kidney function cannot maintain usual function. Wastes from the bloodstream are moved into the dialysis fluid and removed with the fluid as it is drained from the body.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Antistaphylococcal immunoglobulins to prevent staphylococcal infection in very low birth weight infants

Babies born at earlier gestation and who are born with low birth weight are at significant risk of sepsis. This is in part due to the immaturity of the immune defence system, including low levels of immunoglobulins. Researchers attempted to boost the immune system by artificially providing antibodies specific to the most common bacteria causing such infections. Three studies reviewed here (two of which are pilot studies) revealed neither benefit nor risk associated with the preventative use of specific antibodies to common bacterial infections.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Antibiotics at the time of cataract surgery to prevent acute endophthalmitis after surgery

Endophthalmitis (inflammation of the inside of the eyeball due to infection or trauma) is a rare but potentially blinding complication of cataract surgery. It typically is caused by bacteria that enter the eye during surgery or in the first few days after surgery. Multiple preventive measures are used to try to prevent infection after surgery. Several studies have investigated different modes of prevention such as the types of antibiotics used, how the antibiotics are applied or taken, and when the antibiotics are given in the surgical process.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Improving how antibiotics are prescribed by physicians working in hospital settings.

Antibiotics are used to treat infections, such as pneumonia, that are caused by bacteria. Over time, however, many bacteria have become resistant to antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance is a serious problem for individual patients and healthcare systems; in hospitals, infections caused by antibiotic‐resistant bacteria are associated with higher rates of death, illness and prolonged hospital stay. Bacteria often become resistant because antibiotics are used too often and incorrectly. Studies have shown that about half of the time, physicians in hospital are not prescribing antibiotics properly. Hospital physicians may be unclear about the benefits and risks of prescribing antibiotics, including whether to prescribe an antibiotic, which antibiotic to prescribe, at what dose and for how long.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Treatment‐related early and late side effects on the kidney in survivors of childhood cancer

Over the past few decades, great improvements in diagnostics and treatment have resulted in a major increase in survival rates of childhood cancer. However, childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at great risk of developing adverse effects as a result of their cancer treatment. One of the potential adverse effects of childhood cancer treatment is kidney damage. Renal adverse effects are common during and just after treatment, but very little evidence is available on the frequency of renal function impairment in long‐term CCS and on what the risk factors are. Survivors with impaired renal function due to childhood cancer treatment are usually symptom free. The kidneys are remarkably well able to compensate for problems in their functioning. However, when renal late adverse events become symptomatic, survivors can experience a range of symptoms, depending on the kidney functions that are damaged. This systematic review aimed to assess the magnitude of asymptomatic and symptomatic early and late renal adverse events in long‐term CCS and to identify which risk factors contribute to impaired renal function.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Antibiotic therapy for the treatment of methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)‐infected or colonised non surgical wounds

Non surgical wounds include chronic skin ulcers (such as pressure sores or diabetic ulcers), burns and traumatic wounds. Methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can be present in 7% to 30% of such wounds, and the MRSA may spread into the bloodstream, causing a life‐threatening illness. A proportion of the wounds in which MRSA was present show signs of infection such as redness, pain, and pus discharge. The presence of MRSA without infection is called colonisation. It is not clear whether antibiotics should be used in MRSA colonised non‐surgical wounds. The antibiotic that has to be used in MRSA‐infected wounds is also not clear. We tried to find this out by performing a thorough search of the medical literature for studies that compared different antibiotic treatments for MRSA‐infected or MRSA‐colonised non surgical wounds. We included only randomised controlled trials, as, if they are conducted properly, they provide the best information. We included all relevant randomised controlled trials irrespective of the language in which the study was reported, the year of publication, and the number of people included in them. Two review authors independently identified the trials and extracted the relevant information in order to decrease the chance of an error occurring during this process.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Treating and Preventing C-diff Infections: A Review of the Research for Adults and Their Caregivers

This summary will provide information from the most recent review of research on C-diff infections to help you understand your treatment options and ways to prevent future infections.

Comparative Effectiveness Review Summary Guides for Consumers [Internet] - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: December 19, 2011

Medical Encyclopedia

  • Reportable diseases
    Reportable diseases are diseases considered to be of great public health importance. Local, state, and national agencies (for example, county and state health departments or the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) require that these diseases be reported when they are diagnosed by doctors or laboratories.
  • Rectal culture
    Rectal culture is a laboratory test to identify bacteria and other germs in the rectum that can cause gastrointestinal symptoms and disease.
  • Pseudomembranous colitis
    Pseudomembranous colitis is infection of the large intestine (colon) with an overgrowth of Clostridium difficile bacteria.
See all (6)...

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

See all (300)...

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...