Home > Search Results
  • We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information

Results: 1 to 20 of 26

Cyclophosphamide versus methylprednisolone for lupus

Researchers in The Cochrane Collaboration conducted a review of the effect of cyclophosphamide for people with central nervous system lupus compared to the usual treatment of methylprednisolone. After searching for all relevant studies, they found one study with 32 people. The study compared people who took cyclophosphamide by IV (intravenous or through a vein) to people who took steroids (methylprednisolone by IV). All people took steroid pills (prednisone) at the beginning of the study and the amount was decreased over the study. The study lasted two years.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Medicines for Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Review of the Research for Adults

This summary will tell you about two types of medicine to treat RA: DMARDs and corticosteroids. It will explain what research has found about how well DMARDs work when taken alone or with corticosteroids to treat RA. It will also tell you what research says about the side effects of these medicines. You can use this summary to talk with your doctor about whether one of these medicines may be right for you.

Comparative Effectiveness Review Summary Guides for Consumers [Internet] - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: November 20, 2012

Pharmacological interventions show potential for a protective role against ischaemia‐reperfusion injury in liver resections

Elective liver surgery undertaken for a variety of reasons may require occlusion of the blood supply to the liver in order to reduce bleeding from the cut liver surface. This temporary blood supply interruption can cause liver damage for a variety of reasons. In experimental studies many drugs have shown some promise in decreasing liver damage caused by the occluded blood supply. We identified a total of 15 randomised trials evaluating 11 different pharmacological interventions (methylprednisolone, multivitamin antioxidant infusion, vitamin E infusion, amrinone, prostaglandin E1, pentoxifylline, mannitol, trimetazidine, dextrose, allopurinol, and OKY 046). All trials had risk of bias ('systematic errors') and risk of play of chance ('random errors'). There was no significant difference between the groups in mortality, liver failure, or post‐operative complications. The trimetazidine group had a significantly shorter hospital stay, and the vitamin E group had a significantly shorter intensive therapy unit stay than the respective controls. There was no significant difference in any of the clinically relevant outcomes in the remaining comparisons. Methylprednisolone improved the enzyme markers of liver function and trimetazidine, methylprednisolone, and dextrose reduced the enzyme markers of liver injury compared to controls. However, there is a high risk of type I (erroneously concluding that an intervention is beneficial when it is actually not beneficial) and type II errors (erroneously concluding that an intervention is not beneficial when it is actually beneficial) because of the few trials included, the small sample size in each trial, and the risks of bias. Three pharmacological drugs ‐ trimetazidine, methylprednisolone, and dextrose ‐ have potential for a protective role against liver injury in elective liver surgery involving blood supply occlusion. However, based on the current evidence it is recommended that the use of these agents should be restricted to well‐designed trials in patients undergoing resection.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Steroids for acute spinal cord injury

Every year, about 40 million people worldwide suffer a spinal cord injury. Most of them are young men. The results are often devastating. Various drugs have been given to patients in attempts to reduce the extent of permanent paralysis. Steroids have probably been used more for this purpose than any other type of drug. The review looked for studies that examined the effectiveness of this treatment in improving movement and reducing the death rate. Nearly all the research, seven trials, has involved just one steroid, methylprednisolone. The results show that treatment with this steroid does improve movement but it must start soon after the injury has happened, within no more than eight hours. It should be continued for 24 to 48 hours. Different dose rates of the drug have been given and the so‐called high‐dose rate is the most effective. The treatment does not, however, give back the patient a normal amount of movement and more research is necessary with steroids, possibly combining them with other drugs.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Intravenous immunoglobulin for people with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy

We performed this review to assess the evidence from randomised trials on how effective and safe intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is for people with CIDP.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Medicinal and Injection Therapies for mechanical neck disorders

Neck disorders are common, disabling and costly. Over 25% of the population will experience neck pain at some time in their lives. The disorders examined in this review are mechanical neck disorders that are not related to an underlying systemic problem. They may be a result of whiplash, degenerative changes, headaches developing because of neck problems, and symptoms such as pain, numbness and weakness that radiate down the arm, stemming from the neck.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Interventions to prevent or treat serious kidney disease in patients with Henoch‐Schönlein Purpura

Henoch‐Schönlein Purpura (HSP) causes inflammation of small blood vessels in children and affects approximately 20/100,000 children annually. Symptoms and signs include a purpuric skin rash (which comprises small spots and larger bruises), abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, joint pain and swelling, facial swelling and evidence of kidney disease with blood and protein in the urine. Kidney disease occurs in about one third of children with HSP. In the majority this is mild (small amounts of blood in the urine only) and resolves completely but a few children have persistent kidney disease that can progress to kidney failure. Treatments with medications that suppress the immune system (prednisone) and treatments to prevent blood clotting (aspirin, heparin) have been administered to children at diagnosis to prevent serious kidney disease. Also treatments which suppress the immune system (prednisone, methylprednisolone, cyclophosphamide and cyclosporin) have been used in an attempt to treat serious kidney disease in HSP and prevent progression to kidney failure.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Corticosteroids for acute severe asthma in hospitalised patients

In an asthma attack, the airways (passages to the lungs) narrow from muscle spasms and swelling (inflammation), which can cause breathing problems, wheezing and coughing. Attacks can be fatal. Drugs (by inhaler, taken by mouth, or through the veins) can be used to relieve the muscles. Steroids (corticosteroids) are anti‐inflammatory drugs that can reduce the swelling. The review found that lower doses of corticosteroids work as well as higher doses to start with, when a person is hospitalised with an asthma attack.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Intravenous immunoglobulin for myasthenia gravis

Myasthenia gravis is characterised by fluctuating muscle weakness and muscles that tire easily. An acute increase in symptoms can be life‐threatening because of swallowing difficulties or respiratory failure. Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disorder in which the body's own antibodies block the transmission of nerve impulses to muscles and damage the neuromuscular junction (where the nerve meets the muscle). With optimal treatment, including thymectomy, corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs and plasma exchange, most people with myasthenia gravis go into remission or improve but these treatments can cause many adverse events. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) (antibodies purified from human blood), is effective in other autoimmune diseases. The objective of this review was to examine the efficacy of IVIg for treating acute exacerbations or for chronic long‐term, persistent myasthenia. We identified seven randomised controlled trials (RCTs), all of which investigated short‐term benefit. Other than where study limitations are mentioned the risk of bias was generally low. Adverse events due to IVIg were observed in all trials. They were moderate (fever, nausea, headache), self‐limiting and are subjectively less severe than those with plasma exchange (although no statistical comparison was possible).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

A comparison of the efficacy of oral versus intravenous steroids in relapsing‐remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS)

RRMS is characterized by periods of disability (relapse) due to inflammation in the central nervous system. All research has shown that a "speeding up" of recovery is obtained by use of corticosteroids, given most often in intravenous form. If oral steroids worked as well as intravenous ones for relapse events, they would be easier to take and are more affordable.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Interventions for minimal change disease in adults with nephrotic syndrome

Nephrotic syndrome is a condition where the kidneys leak protein from the blood into the urine. Minimal change disease is the third most common primary kidney disease in adults with unexplained nephrotic syndrome (10% to 15%). Steroids have been used widely since the early 1970s for the treatment of adult‐onset minimal change disease, however the optimal agent, dose and duration has not been determined. This review identified three small studies (68 participants) comparing: 1) intravenous plus oral steroid treatment versus oral sterids; 2) oral versus short‐course intravenous steroid treatment; and 3) oral steroid treatment versus placebo. Only oral steroid treatment (compared to short‐course intravenous steroid treatment) showed an increase in the number of patients who achieved complete remission. However, the lack of available studies leaves important treatment questions unanswered; what is the optimal dose and duration of steroid treatment in new‐onset adult minimal change disease; how are relapses following steroid‐induced remission prevented and treated; and what are the appropriate treatments for steroid‐dependent or treatment‐resistant minimal change disease?

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Immunotherapy for diabetic amyotrophy

Results from trials are awaited to show whether corticosteroids, immunoglobulin or other treatments that act on the immune system are beneficial in diabetic amyotrophy.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Corticosteroids to treat brain injury

Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability. After the injury the brain may swell, causing a potentially fatal condition called raised intracranial pressure (ICP). Corticosteroid drugs have been widely used, for many years, to treat patients with brain injury because they are thought to reduce intracranial pressure. Some examples of corticosteroids are dexamethasone and methylprednisolone.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Corticosteroid injection for de Quervain's tenosynovitis

This summary of a Cochrane review presents what we know from research about the effect of Corticosteroid injections for de Quervain's tenosynovitis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Cyclosporine A for induction of remission in severe ulcerative colitis

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammation of the large bowel. Symptoms include bloody diarrhea and abdominal pain. The disease can also have manifestations outside the bowel with involvement of the joints, skin, eyes and liver. While the 'first line' treatment for a severe attack of UC is usually steroids (either as pills or intravenously) the options for patients not responding to steroids are limited and include surgical removal of the large bowel. Cyclosporine A (CsA), a drug effective in preventing transplant organ rejection by suppressing the immune system, was tried in severe UC with encouraging results in the early 1990's. The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of CsA for severe UC. The literature search identified 36 studies. Only 2 studies were of high methodological quality and both support the use of CsA in UC patients with a severe attack. However, both studies were small (involving only 50 patients altogether) and limited in the length of follow‐up (from a few weeks up to a year). There is limited evidence that cyclosporine is more effective than standard treatment for severe ulcerative colitis. The conclusion of the review is that while the data concerning the use of CsA in severe UC are encouraging, more studies are needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Drug treatment for pain in Guillain‐Barré syndrome

Pain in Guillain‐Barré syndrome (GBS), a disease that affects the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord, is often under recognised and poorly managed. Our aim in this review was to find out whether medicines for pain in GBS are safe and effective. We first carried out a wide search of medical databases to find studies that met the requirements for this review. We identified three studies, which involved 277 participants who were randomly assigned to different treatments for pain in GBS. Two medicines, gabapentin and carbamazepine, reduced pain severity compared to placebo (inactive) treatment and they had few side effects. One study found that people taking gabapentin had less pain, sleepiness or need for additional pain killers than those given carbamazepine. However, these studies were small and the treatment period was short. One trial, with 223 participants, found that methylprednisolone, which is a steroid medicine, did not affect the numbers of people who developed pain or change the numbers with more pain or less pain compared with placebo. This study did not report whether there were any side effects.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Aspirin, steroid and non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs use for treating Alzheimer's disease

Inflammation may play an important role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. There is also some evidence from community surveys that people receiving anti‐inflammatory drugs for various medical conditions may be less likely to develop Alzheimer's disease. Fourteen studies met our inclusion criteria for this review and none of the exclusion criteria. Aspirin, steroid and non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (traditional and the selective cyclooxygenase‐2 (COX‐2) inhibitors) showed no significant benefit in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, the use of these drugs cannot be recommended for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.         

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Interventions for treating painful sickle cell crisis during pregnancy

Evidence to establish the beneficial and harmful effects of interventions for treating painful sickle crisis during pregnancy is lacking.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Corticosteroids and immunotherapy to prevent heart damage as a result of rheumatic fever

This is an update of a review published in 2003 and previously updated in 2009. Rheumatic fever is a late complication of a type of throat infection caused by streptococcus bacteria. It is an immune system disease that can lead to inflammatory disease of the heart (carditis), joints, brain and skin. Carditis can cause heart failure and death. Various anti‐inflammatory drugs have been used to treat carditis, including corticosteroids, aspirin and immunoglobulins (immune therapy using antibodies). No new trials were identified in this update. This review included eight trials with 996 participants. Evidence shows little effect in corticosteroids over aspirin in preventing cardiac disease after one year (six studies, 907 participants relative risk 0.87, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 1.15). Most studies did not report on adverse events, but those that did reported complications including weight gain, moon face, and acne. Trials were generally old (six of the trials were between 45 and 60 years old), small, and of poor quality with a high risk of bias. For this reason, results should be interpreted with caution.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

The use of anti‐inflammatory corticosteroids for treating acute worsening in people with multiple sclerosis

This review is un update of the Cochrane Review, "Corticosteroids or ACTH for acute exacerbations in multiple sclerosis," first published in The Cochrane Library 2000, Issue 4.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Medical Encyclopedia

  • Corticosteroids overdose
    Corticosteroids are a type of anti-inflammatory medicine. Corticosteroid overdose occurs when someone accidentally or intentionally takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medication.
  • Bone mineral density test
    A bone mineral density (BMD) test measures how much calcium and other types of minerals are in an area of your bone.
  • Drug-induced lupus erythematosus
    Drug-induced lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disorder that is brought on by a reaction to a medicine.
See all (5)...

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

See all (262)...

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...