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Intravesical Bacillus Calmette‐Guérin versus epirubicin for Ta and T1 bladder cancer

Transurethral resection (TUR) is the usual treatment method for patients who, when examined with a cystoscope, are found to have abnormal growths on the urothelium (stage Ta) and/or in the lamina propria (stage T1). However post‐operation tumour recurrence is a major clinical problem. Intravesical Bacillus Calmette‐Guérin or epirubicin following surgery are therefore often used to try to prevent the cancer recurrence. This review found that intravesical Bacillus Calmette‐Guérin is more efficacious than epirubicin to prevent cancer recurrence. However, Bacillus Calmette‐Guérin appears to induce greater local and systemic adverse effects than epirubicin.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Maintenance chemotherapy for ovarian cancer

Of all the gynaecological cancers, ovarian cancer has the highest death rate and epithelial ovarian cancer accounts for about 90% of all cases. Surgery and six courses of platinum‐based chemotherapy is the standard treatment and 75% of the women may not have any evidence of disease at the end of this treatment. However, 75% of the women who respond to initial treatment will relapse within 18 to 28 months and only 20% to 40% of all women will survive beyond five years.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Different anthracycline derivates for reducing cardiotoxicity in cancer patients

Anthracyclines are among the most effective chemotherapy treatments available for various types of cancer. However, there is a risk of damage to the heart depending on the cumulative dose. In an effort to prevent heart damage different anthracycline derivates (like doxorubicin, daunorubicin, and epirubicin) are being used.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Platinum containing regimens for metastatic breast cancer

Chemotherapy containing platinum causes more adverse effects than other options but might not increase survival in women receiving their first treatments for advanced breast cancer. Advanced (metastatic) breast cancer has spread beyond the breast. Treatment usually involves chemotherapy (anti‐cancer drugs) to try to reduce the cancer. Drugs can be used alone or in combination. Cisplatin and carboplatin are chemotherapy drugs containing platinum, which may interact with other treatments. Adverse effects include neutropenia (low white blood cells), vomiting, hair loss, anaemia and kidney damage. The review of trials found that platinum‐containing chemotherapy causes more adverse effects than other options without additional survival benefits for women on their first treatments for advanced breast cancer. One potential exception may be combining platinum drugs with trastuzumab (Herceptin). However, there is no definitive evidence at this time. Trials are underway.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Different dosage schedules for reducing damage to the heart in cancer patients receiving anthracycline chemotherapy.

Anthracyclines are one of the most effective treatments for various types of cancer. Unfortunately, there is a risk of heart damage depending on the total dose a patient has received. In an effort to prevent this heart damage different anthracycline dosage schedules (like different infusion durations or different individual peak doses) are being used.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the health problems that continue or appear after cancer treatment has ended.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: June 26, 2015

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