Home > Search Results

Results: 41 to 60 of 95

Nutrition Support for Adults: Oral Nutrition Support, Enteral Tube Feeding and Parenteral Nutrition

These guidelines cover most aspects of nutrition support in adult patients (>18 years) who are either malnourished or are at ‘risk’ of malnutrition. In some cases specific guidance related to patients in specific care settings or with specific diseases has been provided but in general the guidance is applicable to patients whatever their setting (hospital or community) or disease. The guideline therefore includes: information on the prevalence of malnutrition and the benefits of good nutrition; guidance on the appropriate forums for the organisation of nutrition support in all settings; guidance on who should be screened for malnutrition and when, along with the criteria for consideration when assessing patients’ nutritional status; the general indications for nutrition support together with ethical and legal considerations that may arise; guidance on the process and special considerations required to prescribe nutrition support and details information on the important parameters to monitor for patients receiving nutrition support; detailed guidance on the administration of oral, enteral and parenteral nutrition including; the appropriate types of access for enteral and parenteral nutrition and the optimum mode of delivering these; specific guidance on the management of providing nutrition support to patients with dysphagia; issues to consider for patients receiving enteral and parenteral nutrition support in the community; issues arising for patients and their carers.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Acute Care (UK).

Version: February 2006
Show search results within this document

Screening for Elevated Lead Levels in Childhood and Pregnancy: Update of a 1996 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Review [Internet]

Members of the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) defined the scope of this update, in cooperation with the Agency for Healthcare Research and quality (AHRQ) and the Oregon Evidence Based Practice Center (EPC) personnel. The Task Force's goals for this update were to address the gaps in the literature revealed in the 1996 USPSTF recommendations. These gaps related to the accuracy of risk assessment questionnaires in children with varying blood lead levels, the population prevalence at which to change from targeted screening to universal screening, the effectiveness of interventions to lower lead levels, and cost-effectiveness analyses of lead screening programs.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: December 2006
Show search results within this document

Atopic Eczema in Children: Management of Atopic Eczema in Children from Birth up to the Age of 12 Years

Atopic eczema (atopic dermatitis) is a chronic inflammatory itchy skin condition that develops in early childhood in the majority of cases. It is typically an episodic disease of exacerbation (flares, which may occur as frequently as two or three per month) and remissions, except for severe cases where it may be continuous. Certain patterns of atopic eczema are recognised. In infants, atopic eczema usually involves the face and extensor surfaces of the limbs and, while it may involve the trunk, the napkin area is usually spared. A few infants may exhibit a discoid pattern (circular patches). In older children flexural involvement predominates, as in adults. Diagnostic criteria are discussed in Chapter 3. As with other atopic conditions, such as asthma and allergic rhinitis (hay fever), atopic eczema often has a genetic component. In atopic eczema, inherited factors affect the development of the skin barrier, which can lead to exacerbation of the disease by a large number of trigger factors, including irritants and allergens. Many cases of atopic eczema clear or improve during childhood while others persist into adulthood, and some children who have atopic eczema `will go on to develop asthma and/or allergic rhinitis; this sequence of events is sometimes referred to as the ‘atopic march’. The epidemiology of atopic eczema is considered in Chapter 5, and the impact of the condition on children and their families/caregivers is considered in Sections 4.2 and 4.3.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: December 2007
Show search results within this document

Antioxidant vitamins and mineral supplements to prevent the development of age‐related macular degeneration

Age‐related macular degeneration (AMD) is a condition affecting the central area of the retina (back of the eye). The retina can deteriorate with age and some people get lesions that can lead to loss of central vision. Some studies have suggested that people who eat a diet rich in antioxidant vitamins (carotenoids, vitamins C and E) or minerals (selenium and zinc) may be less likely to get AMD. The authors identified four large, high‐quality randomised controlled trials which included 62,520 people. The trials were conducted in Australia, Finland and the USA and investigated the effects of vitamin E and beta‐carotene supplementation. These trials provide evidence that taking vitamin E and beta‐carotene supplements is unlikely to prevent the onset of AMD. There was no evidence for other antioxidant supplements and commonly marketed combinations. Although generally regarded as safe, vitamin supplements may have harmful effects and clear evidence of benefit is needed before they can be recommended.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Antioxidant supplements cannot be recommended for gastrointestinal cancer prevention

Our body cannot synthesize all compounds that are essential for health. Therefore such compounds must be taken through diet. Oxidative stress may cause cell damage that is implicated in chronic diseases like cancer. Gastrointestinal cancers are among the most common cancers worldwide. The poor prognosis of patients diagnosed with gastrointestinal cancers made primary prevention a potentially attractive approach. The evidence on whether antioxidant supplements are effective in decreasing gastrointestinal cancers is contradictory.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Comparison of Translational Patterns in Two Nutrient-Disease Associations: Nutritional Research Series, Vol. 5

There are several examples in nutrition of discordance between the results of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We hypothesized that this discordance is attributable to differences in the translational paths of nutrient–disease associations. Translational paths can be assessed using citation analysis.

Technical Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: October 2011
Show search results within this document

Vitamins C and E for asthma and exercise‐induced breathlessness

We considered in this review whether vitamins C and E, when taken together daily, may be helpful for people with asthma or exercise‐induced breathlessness.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Antioxidants for preventing pre‐eclampsia

Pre‐eclampsia can occur during pregnancy when women have high blood pressure and protein in their urine. In some cases, it can lead to poor growth for the baby and premature birth. There can also be serious complications for the woman, sometimes affecting the liver, kidneys, brain or blood clotting system. Both mother and baby are at risk of mortality. A possible contributing factor to the development of pre‐eclampsia may be the presence of excessive amounts of chemicals called 'free radicals'. Antioxidants, such as vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and lycopene, can neutralize free radicals. The review covered 10 trials, involving 6533 women, and looked at several antioxidants. Overall the review found no reduction in pre‐eclampsia, high blood pressure or preterm birth with the use of antioxidant supplements. When antioxidants were assessed separately, there were insufficient data to be clear about whether there was any benefit or not, except for vitamin C and E. The current evidence does not support the use of antioxidants to reduce the risk of pre‐eclampsia or other complications in pregnancy, but there are trials still in progress.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Treatment for cardiac problems caused by anthracycline chemotherapy for childhood cancer

Anthracyclines are anti‐cancer drugs that are used in the treatment of different types of childhood cancer. An important adverse effect of anthracyclines is damage to the heart that can lead to asymptomatic (without complaints) or symptomatic (with complaints) cardiac problems during and after cancer treatment. There are several drugs available to treat other types of cardiac problems in adults, but it is not known if these drugs are beneficial in treating cardiac problems caused by anthracyclines in childhood cancer patients and survivors. If a physician is confronted with a childhood cancer patient or survivor with anthracycline‐induced cardiac problems, he or she should be able to make an informed decision to treat this patient based on high‐quality evidence about the beneficial and adverse effects of the treatment options. We searched for and summarised studies that evaluated drugs for treating anthracycline‐induced cardiac problems in childhood cancer patients and survivors.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Powders of iron plus other micronutrients for home (point‐of‐use) fortification of foods consumed by pregnant women

Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to nutrient deficiencies due to the requirements of the growing baby during the pregnancy. In low‐income countries, many women have diets with low content of vitamins and minerals, and they participate in long hours of physical labour. They are also exposed to recurrent infections, which make nutritional deficiencies worse. Thus, lack of adequate nutrition can contribute to the poor health of these women their babies.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Cancer Prevention Overview (PDQ®): Patient Version

General information about cancer prevention and descriptions of the concepts used in cancer-specific prevention summaries.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 17, 2014

Vitamins and minerals for female subfertility

Review question: Do supplementary oral antioxidants compared with placebo, no treatment/standard treatment or another antioxidant improve fertility outcomes for subfertile women (standard treatment includes folic acid < 1 mg).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about factors that may influence the risk of developing stomach cancer and about research aimed at the prevention of this disease.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: February 9, 2015

Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about factors that may influence the risk of developing stomach cancer and about research aimed at the prevention of this disease.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 22, 2013

Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer: systematic review and economic evaluation

Colorectal cancer is a malignant neoplasm arising from the lining of the large intestine (colon and rectum). Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the UK, with approximately 32,000 new cases annually in England and Wales. Incidence increases with age, the median age at diagnosis being over 70 years. Environmental factors such as diet, exercise, obesity, smoking and alcohol intake are thought to affect the risk of developing colorectal cancer. Approximately 25% of colorectal cancers occur in individuals with a family history of the disease, including 5% caused by the genetic syndromes familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) or hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Risk is also higher in individuals with inflammatory bowel disease. The overall 5-year survival rate for colorectal cancer in England and Wales is approximately 50% but varies according to the stage of disease at diagnosis. It is thought that most colorectal cancers develop from adenomatous polyps arising from the lining of the intestine. Most adenomas are asymptomatic and do not develop into cancer, with approximately one-third of the population developing at least one adenoma by the age of 60 years. Indirect evidence suggests that adenomas may be present for 10 years or more before malignancy develops. Colorectal cancer screening via faecal occult blood testing has been rolled out across the UK. Individuals in whom adenomatous polyps are identified undergo polypectomy (removal of polyps) and are invited for endoscopic surveillance, i.e. repeat examinations at regular intervals. Studies have assessed the effect of various interventions in preventing colorectal cancer.

NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme: Executive Summaries - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: 2010

Antioxidants to reduce pain in chronic pancreatitis

Chronic pancreatitis is a persistent inflammation of the pancreas that in the long run can cause irreparable damage. The major causes of chronic pancreatitis are genetics, alcohol toxicity and other conditions that might damage or obstruct the pancreas. This inflammation can cause pain that often is severe and leaves patients socially isolated and unable to perform their jobs. Unfortunately, treatment options are scarce, and often strong morphine‐like pain medications are needed. Patients might benefit from alternative medication without the adverse effects associated with morphine‐like medication. This review summarises the evidence from randomised trials on the effects of antioxidants in chronic pancreatitis. Antioxidants are substances that prevent damage to cells caused by toxic byproducts of oxygen in the body. Levels of these byproducts are increased in chronic pancreatitis. Antioxidants constitute a large group that contains many natural and man‐made products. Examples include vitamin C, vitamin E, flavonoids (present in tea and cocoa) and many specialised medications. We found 12 randomised trials on this topic. The quality of these trials was mixed, and many had small sample sizes and high rates of dropout. Evidence shows that antioxidants may reduce pain in patients with chronic pancreatitis, but the reported reduction in pain was small. Whether this small decrease really had an impact on patients' complaints is not clear. Given the methodological problems of these trials, a strong conclusion could not be drawn. Use of antioxidants resulted in adverse effects in about 16% of study participants. Most adverse effects were mild, such as headache, nausea and constipation. However, participants who developed these adverse effects tended to stop using antioxidant medication. Other outcomes important for decision making such as use of analgesics, rate of exacerbation of pancreatitis and quality of life, were not very well reported. Therefore, we were unable to reach conclusions on these outcomes.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Antioxidant vitamins and mineral supplements to slow down the progression of age‐related macular degeneration

Age‐related macular degeneration (AMD) is a condition affecting the central area of the retina (back of the eye). The retina can deteriorate with age and some people get lesions that can lead to loss of central vision. It has been suggested that progression of the disease may be slowed down in people who eat a diet rich in antioxidant vitamins (carotenoids, vitamins C and E) or minerals (selenium and zinc). We identified 13 randomised controlled trials that included 6150 participants; five trials based in the USA, two in the UK, two trials in Austria, and one trial in each of a further four countries (Australia, China, Italy and Switzerland). The review of trials found that supplementation with antioxidants and zinc may be of modest benefit in people with AMD. This was mainly seen in one large trial that followed up participants for an average of six years. The other smaller trials with shorter follow‐up do not provide evidence of any benefit. Large well‐conducted trials in a range of populations and with different nutritional status are required. Although generally regarded as safe, vitamin supplements may have harmful effects. A systematic review of the evidence on harms of vitamin supplements is needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about factors that may influence the risk of developing lung cancer and about research aimed at the prevention of this disease.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: June 26, 2015

Stable Angina: Methods, Evidence & Guidance [Internet]

Angina is pain or constricting discomfort that typically occurs in the front of the chest (but may radiate to the neck, shoulders, jaw or arms) and is brought on by physical exertion or emotional stress. It is the main symptomatic manifestation of myocardial ischaemia and is usually caused by obstructive coronary artery disease restricting oxygen delivery to the cardiac myocytes. Other factors may exacerbate angina either by further restricting oxygen delivery (for example severe anaemia) or by increasing oxygen demand (for example left ventricular hypertrophy). Angina symptoms are associated with other cardiac disease such as aortic stenosis but the management of angina associated with non-coronary artery disease is outside the scope of this guideline.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guidelines Centre (UK).

Version: July 2011
Show search results within this document

Cancell/Cantron/Protocel (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of Cancell/Entelev as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: January 7, 2015

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

See all (151)...

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...