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Interventions To Improve Cardiovascular Risk Factors in People With Serious Mental Illness [Internet]

Individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) have excess mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) and high rates of CVD risk factors such as diabetes, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate interventions to improve CVD risk factors in adults with SMI.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: April 2013
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Different antihypertensive drugs as first line therapy in patients with essential hypertension: Executive summary of final report A05-09, Version 1.0

The aim of this investigation is to find out the extent to which the benefit of antihypertensive drugs is dependent on the choice of the first-line drug in the treatment of essential hypertension.

Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care: Executive Summaries [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: July 15, 2009

Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Screening, Management, and Treatment [Internet]

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare and progressive disease associated with increased pulmonary vascular resistance that, if unrelieved, progresses to right ventricular pressure overload, dysfunction, right heart failure, and premature death. PAH is more prevalent in some populations, thereby warranting screening of asymptomatic individuals. This review seeks to evaluate the comparative validity, reliability, and feasibility of echocardiography and biomarker testing for the screening, diagnosis, and management of PAH; to clarify whether the use of echocardiography or biomarkers affects decisionmaking and clinical outcomes; and to determine which medications are effective for treating PAH and whether combination therapy is more effective than monotherapy.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: April 2013
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Migraine in Children: Preventive Pharmacologic Treatments [Internet]

To assess the comparative effectiveness and safety of preventive pharmacologic treatments for community-dwelling children with episodic or chronic migraine.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: June 2013
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Testing of CYP2C19 Variants and Platelet Reactivity for Guiding Antiplatelet Treatment [Internet]

This comparative effectiveness review evaluated the analytic validity, prognostic value, and comparative effectiveness of two types of medical tests (genetic testing for CYP2C19 variants and phenotypic testing to measure platelet reactivity) to identify patients who are most likely to benefit from clopidogrel-based antiplatelet therapy and to guide antiplatelet therapy in patient populations who are eligible to receive or are already receiving clopidogrel treatment.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: September 2013
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Echocardiography in newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation patients: a systematic review and economic evaluation

Study finds that routine use of transthoracic echocardiography following diagnosis of atrial fibrillation would identify pathologies in many patients, particularly with regard to valvular heart disease, ischaemic heart disease and heart failure. Economic modeling suggested that this approach is likely to be cost-effective.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: August 2013
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Vitamin D and Calcium: A Systematic Review of Health Outcomes (Update)

In 2009, the Institute of Medicine/Food and Nutrition Board constituted a Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) committee to undertake a review of the evidence that had emerged (since the 1997 DRI report) on the relationship of vitamin D and calcium, both individually and combined, to a wide range of health outcomes, and potential revision of the DRI values for these nutrients. To support that review, several United States and Canadian Federal Government agencies commissioned a systematic review of the scientific literature for use during the deliberations by the committee. The intent was to support a transparent literature review process and provide a foundation for subsequent reviews of the nutrients. The committee used the resulting literature review in their revision of the DRIs.

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: September 2014
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Lipid Modification: Cardiovascular Risk Assessment and the Modification of Blood Lipids for the Primary and Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

This guideline updates for primary prevention, the NICE technology appraisal, ‘Statins for the prevention of cardiovascular events’ (TA94, 2007) and reviews and updates the recommendations made in the NICE guideline Lipid Modification (CG67, 2008) for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The scope for this guideline was limited to the identification and assessment of CVD risk and to the assessment and modification of lipids in people at risk of CVD, or people with known CVD. The guideline development group wishes to make clear that lipid modification should take place as part of a programme of risk reduction which also include attention to the management of all other known CVD risk factors.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: July 2014
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Drug Class Review: Controller Medications for Asthma: Final Update 1 Report [Internet]

To compare the efficacy and safety of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs), long-acting beta-2 agonists (LABAs), leukotriene modifiers (LMs), anti-IgE therapy, combination products, and tiotropium for people with persistent asthma.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: April 2011
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Drug Class Review: Long-Acting Opioid Analgesics: Final Update 6 Report [Internet]

We compared the effectiveness and harms of long-acting opioids and of long-acting opioids compared with short-acting opioids in adults with chronic noncancer pain.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: July 2011
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Drug Class Review: Antiepileptic Drugs for Indications Other Than Epilepsy: Final Report Update 2 [Internet]

Antiepileptic drugs have been used beyond treatment of seizure disorders since the 1960s. As new antiepileptic drugs have become available, there has been interest in how they compare with older therapies (carbamazepine, phenytoin, and valproate) and each other in disorders where conventional pharmacotherapy has typically been suboptimal and limited by drug-related toxicity. The objective of this report is to evaluate the comparative effectiveness and harms of antiepileptic drugs used for bipolar disorder, fibromyalgia, migraine prophylaxis, and chronic pain.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: October 2008
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Antisocial Behaviour and Conduct Disorders in Children and Young People: Recognition, Intervention and Management

Antisocial behaviour and conduct disorders are the most common reason for referral to child and adolescent mental health services and have a significant impact on the quality of life of children and young people and their parents and carers. Rates of other mental health problems (including antisocial personality disorder) are considerably increased for adults who had a conduct disorder in childhood. This new NICE guideline seeks to address these problems by offering advice on prevention strategies, as well as a range of psychosocial interventions.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2013
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Migraine in Adults: Preventive Pharmacologic Treatments [Internet]

To assess comparative effectiveness and safety of preventive pharmacologic treatments for community-dwelling adults with episodic or chronic migraine.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: April 2013
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Diabetes in Pregnancy: Management of Diabetes and Its Complications from Preconception to the Postnatal Period

Clinical guidelines have been defined as ‘systematically developed statements which assist clinicians and patients in making decisions about appropriate treatment for specific conditions’. This clinical guideline concerns the management of diabetes and its complications from preconception to the postnatal period. It has been developed with the aim of providing guidance on:

NICE Guideline - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: February 2015
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Optimal strategies for identifying kidney disease in diabetes: properties of screening tests, progression of renal dysfunction and impact of treatment – systematic review and modelling of progression and cost-effectiveness

This study found evidence to support the use of annual screening to identify the development of early kidney disease in patients with diabetes, which is consistent with current UK guidelines. For type 1 diabetes, the costs of annual screening are well within the accepted level of cost-effectiveness, and, for patients with type 2 diabetes, annual screening is even more cost-effective.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: February 2014
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Cancer Pain (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about pain as a complication of cancer or its treatment. Approaches to the management and treatment of cancer-associated pain are discussed.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: January 4, 2016

Diagnosis and Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction

To systematically review the evidence on efficacy and harms of pharmaceutical treatments used in the management of male erectile dysfunction (ED); to explore the clinical utility of routine hormonal blood tests (e.g. testosterone, prolactin) for identifying and treating hormonal disorders and thereby affecting therapeutic outcomes for ED.

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: May 2009
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Catheter Ablation for Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation [Internet]

This report evaluates the current state of evidence regarding effectiveness and harms of catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation (AF) with a focus on longer-term outcomes and evidence relevant to the Medicare population.

Technology Assessment Report - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: April 20, 2015
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Myocardial Infarction with ST-Segment Elevation: The Acute Management of Myocardial Infarction with ST-Segment Elevation [Internet]

When myocardial blood flow is acutely impaired (ischaemia), and often not provoked by exertion, a person will commonly suffer more prolonged pain; this is referred to as acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The underlying common pathophysiology of ACS involves the erosion or sudden rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque within the wall of a coronary artery. Exposure of the circulating blood to the cholesterol-rich material within the plaque stimulates blood clotting (thrombosis), which obstructs blood flow within the affected coronary artery. This coronary obstruction may be of short duration, and may not result in myocardial cell damage (necrosis), in which case the clinical syndrome is termed unstable angina. Unstable angina may result in reversible changes on the electrocardiogram (ECG) but does not cause a rise in troponin, a protein released by infarcting myocardial cells. Ischaemia which causes myocardial necrosis (infarction) will result in elevated troponin. When the ischaemia-causing infarction is either short-lived or affects only a small territory of myocardium the ECG will often show either no abnormality or subtle changes. This syndrome is termed non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). The diagnosis and immediate management of STEMI and the management of unstable angina and NSTEMI is addressed in other NICE Clinical Guidelines (CG95 and CG94).

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: July 2013
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New Oral Anticoagulants for the Prevention of Thromboembolic Events in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation [Internet]

Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common cardiac rhythm abnormality, is associated with substantial morbidity. AF-related mortality is mainly attributable to complications of stroke. Stroke risk can be quantified using a validated tool such as the CHADS2 score. Warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist, is the standard of care for patients with AF and has demonstrated efficacy in the prevention of stroke. Warfarin has a narrow therapeutic window, produces varied responses among patients, and interacts with some types of food and other drugs, all of which necessitates routine laboratory monitoring.

CADTH Therapeutic Review - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: 2012
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