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Treats fluid retention (edema) and high blood pressure. This medicine is a diuretic (water pill).

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Results: 10

Dementia: A NICE-SCIE Guideline on Supporting People With Dementia and Their Carers in Health and Social Care

This guideline has been developed to advise on supporting people with dementia and their carers in health and social care. The guideline recommendations have been developed by a multidisciplinary team of health and social care professionals, a person with dementia, carers and guideline methodologists after careful consideration of the best available evidence. It is intended that the guideline will be useful to practitioners and service commissioners in providing and planning high-quality care for those with dementia while also emphasising the importance of the experience of care for people with dementia and carers.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2007
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The blood pressure lowering effect of ENaC blockers is not known

Potassium‐sparing diuretics, which block the epithelial sodium channel (also called ENaC blockers), are a class of drugs commonly prescribed to prevent loss of potassium but also might help to lower elevated blood pressure. This class includes drugs such as amiloride (Midamor, Amilzide) and triamterene (Dyrenium, Dyazide). We asked how much this class of drugs lowers blood pressure, when used alone or when used as the second drug to treat hypertension. The available scientific literature was searched to find all the trials that had assessed this question. No trials were found studying the blood pressure lowering ability of ENaC blockers when used alone. We found 6 trials studying the blood pressure lowering ability of amiloride and triamterene, when added as a second drug, in 496 participants. All 6 trials studied the ENaC blockers at low doses and there was no blood pressure lowering effect. Trials studying these drugs at higher doses are needed in order to determine if they lower blood pressure. The harms associated with ENaC blockers could not be estimated in this review because of the low doses studied and the short duration of the trials.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Garlic for Hypertension

Garlic is widely used by patients for its blood pressure lowering effects. In this analysis, we reviewed the currently available evidence to determine the impact of garlic on cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with hypertension. Based on data from two randomized controlled trials that compared garlic to placebo in patients with hypertension it appears that garlic may have some blood pressure lowering effect, as compared to placebo but the evidence currently available is insufficient to determine whether garlic provides a therapeutic advantage versus placebo in terms of reducing the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Data on the safety of garlic, as a therapeutic entity, in this population is also lacking. More (and large enough) trials comparing several doses of garlic with placebo are needed to detect possible differences in mortality, serious adverse events, and cardiovascular morbidity.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Treatment of elderly hypertensive patients with epithelial sodium channel inhibitors combined with a thiazide diuretic reduces coronary mortality and sudden cardiac death

The authors concluded that use of an epithelial sodium channel inhibitor combined with hydrochlorothiazide for treatment of hypertension in elderly patients resulted in favourable effects on coronary mortality or sudden cardiac death. The reliability of the conclusions is uncertain given a number of weaknesses in the review methods (risk of error and bias, unclear quality of included studies).

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2008

Dietary Supplements in Adults Taking Cardiovascular Drugs [Internet]

A substantial proportion of patients with cardiovascular diseases use dietary supplements in anticipation of benefit. This also poses risks of adverse events from supplement-drug interactions and nonadherence associated with polypharmacy.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: April 2012
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Hypertension: The Clinical Management of Primary Hypertension in Adults: Update of Clinical Guidelines 18 and 34 [Internet]

NICE first issued guidance for the management of hypertension in primary care in 2004. This was followed by a rapid update of the pharmacological treatment chapter of the guideline in 2006. The current partial update of the hypertension guideline is in response to the regular five year review cycle of existing NICE guidance. It began with a scoping exercise which identified key areas of the existing guideline for which new evidence had emerged that was likely to influence or change existing guideline recommendations.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: August 2011
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Screening for Hypertension in Children and Adolescents to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease: Systematic Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force [Internet]

Hypertension in children can be associated with adverse health outcomes and may persist into adulthood, where it presents a significant personal and public health burden. Screening asymptomatic children has the potential to detect hypertension at earlier stages, so that interventions can be initiated which, if effective, could reduce the adverse health effects of childhood hypertension in children and adults.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: February 2013
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Drug Class Review: Beta Adrenergic Blockers: Final Report Update 4 [Internet]

Beta blockers inhibit the chronotropic, inotropic, and vasoconstrictor responses to the catecholamines, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. Beta blockers differ in their duration of effect (3 hours to 22 hours), the types of beta receptors they block (β1-selective or β1/β2-nonselective), whether they are simultaneously capable of exerting low level heart rate increases (intrinsic sympathomimetic activity [ISA]), and in whether they provide additional blood vessel dilation effects by also blocking alpha-1 receptors. All beta blockers are approved for the treatment of hypertension. Other US Food and Drug Administration-approved uses are specific to each beta blocker and include stable and unstable angina, atrial arrhythmias, bleeding esophageal varices, coronary artery disease, asymptomatic and symptomatic heart failure, migraine, and secondary prevention of post-myocardial infarction. The objective of this review was to evaluate the comparative effectiveness and harms of beta blockers in adult patients with hypertension, angina, coronary artery bypass graft, recent myocardial infarction, heart failure, atrial arrhythmia, migraine or bleeding esophageal varices.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: July 2009
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Drug Class Review: Alzheimer's Drugs: Final Report [Internet]

Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common adult form of dementia. Currently available pharmacologic therapies, including cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists, are considered symptomatic treatments based on their ability to slow the clinical progression of symptoms across cognitive, behavioral, and functional domains. The purpose of this review is to help policy makers and clinicians make informed choices about the use of ChEIs and memantine in the treatment of AD. We compare the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine, tacrine, and memantine in patients with mild to severe AD.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: June 2006
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Drug Class Review: Neuropathic Pain: Final Update 1 Report [Internet]

We compared the effectiveness and harms of anticonvulsants, tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and the lidocaine patchin adults with neuropathic pain.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: June 2011
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Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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