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About - Toremifene

Oral route: Toremifene is used to treat metastatic breast cancer (cancer that has spread) that is hormone-receptor positive in women who have already stopped menstruating (postmenopausal).

By mouth: Treats metastatic (spreading) breast cancer in postmenopausal (no longer have menstrual periods) women with certain types of tumors.

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Results: 7

Toremifene versus tamoxifen for advanced breast cancer

Seven eligible studies were identified, all of which provided information on response to treatment (in 2061 patients), five on progression‐free survival (in 1436 patients) and four on overall survival (in 1374 patients). The trials were generally old (conducted between late 1980s and early 1990s) and were of modest quality.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Toremifene and tamoxifen have similar efficacy in the treatment of patients with breast cancer: a meta-analysis of randomized trials

A meta-analysis of randomized trials was performed to compare the efficacy of toremifene (TOR) with tamoxifen (TAM) in patients with breast cancer. A total of 4,768 intention-to-treat patients from nine randomized trials were identified, with 2,587 patients in TOR group and 2,181 patients in TAM group. The primary outcomes were objective response rate (ORR), time to progression (TTP), and overall survival (OS). The ORR for TOR group was 26.2 % (303/1,156), whereas the ORR for TAM group was 25.2 % (284/1,128). The pooled RR suggested that the ORR were not statistically different between the two therapeutic groups (RR 1.04, 95 % CI 0.91-1.20, P = 0.57). The median TTP was 6.7 months for the TOR group and 9.7 months for the TAM group. The median OS was 30.1 months for the TOR group and 31.7 months for the TAM group. There were no significant difference in TTP and OS between two therapeutic groups (for TTP: HR 0.91, 95 % CI 0.82-1.00; for OS: HR 1.02, 95 % CI 0.91-1.15). Adverse events were generally similar in two therapeutic groups, but TOR may cause fewer vaginal bleeding (4.0 vs. 6.7 %, P < 0.01), headache (0.2 vs. 3.1 %, P = 0.02) and thromboembolic events (4.7 vs. 7.0 %, P = 0.04). Sensitivity analyses were performed by deleting a single study each time; all the results were not materially altered. In summary, the results of this meta-analysis suggest that TOR and TAM have similar efficacy in the treatment of patients with breast cancer.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Toremifene is an effective and safe alternative to tamoxifen in adjuvant endocrine therapy for breast cancer: results of four randomized trials

Compared to tamoxifen, the efficacy and side effects of toremifene in adjuvant endocrine therapy for breast cancer were not very clear. This meta-analysis was conducted to give a more precise estimation of the efficacy and severe side effects of toremifene given in the adjuvant setting in comparison to tamoxifen. The electronic database PubMed was searched for randomized trials comparing toremifene with tamoxifen as adjuvant therapies. Four randomized trials published in three articles were eligible, including 1,890 pooled cases treated with toremifene and 1,857 cases treated with tamoxifen. Compared to patients in tamoxifen group, patients in toremifene group did not have a significantly different overall survival rate (risk ratio (RR): 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97-1.19, P = 0.994 for heterogeneity) or a disease-free survival (DFS) rate (RR: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.95-1.17, P = 0.431 for heterogeneity) at the end of the follow-up time. The rates of thromboembolic events in toremifene group, including deep vein thrombosis (odds ratio (OR): 0.68, 95% CI: 0.40-1.17, P = 0.926 for heterogeneity), cerebrovascular accident (OR: 0.59, 95% CI: 0.32-1.09, P = 0.438 for heterogeneity), and pulmonary embolism (OR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.42-2.01, P = 0.618 for heterogeneity), were not significantly different from those in tamoxifen group. The rates of endometrial polyps and endometrial cancer between the two groups were almost the same. This meta-analysis suggested that toremifene was as effective as tamoxifen in the adjuvant setting for both perimenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer patients with similar severe adverse effects to tamoxifen. Toremifene was a convincing and safe change for tamoxifen in adjuvant endocrine therapy.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

Effects of toremifene versus tamoxifen on breast cancer patients: a meta-analysis

Toremifene and tamoxifen are both selective estrogen receptor modulators used in the treatment of breast cancer patients. Therefore, we carried out a meta-analysis to achieve a more precise evaluation of the effects of toremifene versus tamoxifen on breast cancer patients, including the efficacy and safety, and the effects on the uterus, lipids, and bone. Comprehensive literature searches were conducted using the electronic databases and reference lists to include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared toremifene with tamoxifen for breast cancer patients. Two reviewers independently selected studies and abstracted data. Data were analyzed by Review Manager, version 5.0. Twenty-three trials (7242 patients) were included. For early stage breast cancer, toremifene was associated with higher 5-year survival rates (OR 1.25, 95 % CI 1.04, 1.50), more vaginal discharge (OR 1. 32, 95 % CI 1.01, 1.73), a greater decrease in serum triglyceride levels (SMD -1.01, 95 % CI -1.89, -0.14), a smaller decrease in LDL cholesterol levels (SMD 0.45, 95 % CI 0.07, 0.84) and in bone mineral density in Ward's triangle (SMD -0.36, 95 % CI -0.71, -0.01), and a greater increase in HDL cholesterol levels (SMD 0.43, 95 % CI 0.08, 0.77) than tamoxifen. For advanced breast cancer patients, toremifene was associated with more vaginal bleeding (OR 0.45, 95 % CI 0.26, 0.80) and a greater decrease in serum triglyceride levels (SMD -1.15, 95 % CI -1.90, -0.39) than tamoxifen. Available evidence showed that toremifene could be an alternative option to tamoxifen for both early and advanced breast cancer patients. However, the methodological quality of the included studies was low. More rigorous RCTs are needed to confirm the results of this meta-analysis in the future.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Clinical Utility of Cancer Family History Collection in Primary Care

This systematic review aimed to evaluate, within unselected populations: the (1) performance of family history (FHx)-based models in predicting cancer risk; (2) overall benefits and harms associated with established cancer prevention interventions; (3) impact of FHx-based risk information on the uptake of preventive interventions; and (4) potential for harms associated with collecting cancer FHx.

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: April 2009
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Diagnosis and Management of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS)

Systematic synthesis of the published evidence about incidence, risk factors, and management options for women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast.

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: September 2009
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Skeletal consequences of hormone therapy discontinuance: a systematic review

This review primarily examined the effectiveness of treatments to prevent bone loss after the discontinuation of hormone therapy in postmenopausal women. The authors found only two randomised controlled trials that addressed this question, both of which suggested that alendronate may be beneficial. However, given the differences between the studies and the limited amount of data available, the review findings are cautious.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2006

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