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Clinical outcomes with extended or continuous versus short-term intravenous infusion of carbapenems and piperacillin/tazobactam: a systematic review and meta-analysis

We sought to study whether the better pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) properties of carbapenems and piperacillin/tazobactam, when the duration of infusion is longer, were associated with lower mortality. PubMed and Scopus were searched for studies reporting on patients treated with extended (≥3 hours) or continuous (24 hours) versus short-term duration (20-60 minutes) infusions of carbapenems or piperacillin/tazobactam. Fourteen studies were included (1229 patients). Mortality was lower among patients receiving extended or continuous infusion of carbapenems or piperacillin/tazobactam compared to those receiving short-term (risk ratio [RR], 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], .41-.83). Patients with pneumonia who received extended or continuous infusion had lower mortality than those receiving short-term infusion (RR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.26-0.96). Data for other specific infections were not available. The available evidence from mainly nonrandomized studies suggests that extended or continuous infusion of carbapenems or piperacillin/tazobactam was associated with lower mortality. Well-designed randomized controlled trials are warranted to confirm these findings before such approaches become widely used.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Single‐agent antibiotic treatment for cancer patients with fever and low white blood cell counts

Cancer patients develop neutropenia, a decrease in the neutrophil subset of the white blood cells, as a result of chemotherapy. Neutropenia exposes patients to infections, mainly bacterial. Without antibiotic treatment these infections may be fatal, therefore antibiotic treatment is administered when a patient with neutropenia develops fever. The objective of this review was to compare antibiotic treatments currently recommended in consensus guidelines for the initial treatment of cancer patients with fever and neutropenia.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Prolonged vs intermittent infusion of piperacillin/tazobactam in critically ill patients: a narrative and systematic review

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to review the rationale of prolonged (ie, extended or continuous) infusion of piperacillin/tazobactam (PIP/TAZ) in critically ill patients and to perform a systematic review that compare the effectiveness of prolonged infusion with intermittent bolus of PIP/TAZ.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Ertapenem versus piperacillin/tazobactam for the treatment of complicated infections: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

The review found that ertapenem appeared to be as safe and effective as piperacillin/tazobactam for treatment of complicated infections, particularly those of mild to moderate severity. Although the search was limited, the review was generally well conducted and the authors’ conclusions appear likely to be reliable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2009

Enabling Medication Management Through Health Information Technology

The objective of the report was to review the evidence on the impact of health information technology (IT) on all phases of the medication management process (prescribing and ordering, order communication, dispensing, administration and monitoring as well as education and reconciliation), to identify the gaps in the literature and to make recommendations for future research.

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: April 2011
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Chronic Venous Ulcers: A Comparative Effectiveness Review of Treatment Modalities [Internet]

To systematically review whether the use of advanced wound dressings, systemic antibiotics, or venous surgery enhanced the healing of venous ulcers over the use of adequate venous compression.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: December 2013
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Neutropenic Sepsis: Prevention and Management of Neutropenic Sepsis in Cancer Patients

Guidelines are recommendations for the care of individuals in specific clinical conditions or circumstances - and these can include prevention and self-care through to primary and secondary care and on to more specialised services. NICE clinical guidelines are based on the best available evidence of clinical and cost effectiveness, and are produced to help healthcare professionals and patients make informed choices about appropriate healthcare. While guidelines assist the practice of healthcare professionals, they do not replace their knowledge and skills.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (UK).

Version: September 2012
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Antibiotics for Early-Onset Neonatal Infection: Antibiotics for the Prevention and Treatment of Early-Onset Neonatal Infection

Early-onset neonatal bacterial infection (infection with onset within 72 hours of birth) is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in newborn babies. Parent organisations and the scientific literature report that there can be unnecessary delays in recognising and treating sick babies. In addition, concern about the possibility of early-onset neonatal infection is common. This concern is an important influence on the care given to pregnant women and newborn babies. There is wide variation in how the risk of early-onset neonatal infection is managed in healthy babies. The approach taken by the NHS needs to: prioritise the treatment of sick babies, minimise the impact of management pathways on healthy women and babies, use antibiotics wisely to avoid the development of resistance to antibiotics. These drivers have not always been addressed consistently in the NHS, and this guideline was commissioned to ensure they would be addressed in future.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: August 2012
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Antibiotic therapy for the treatment of methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)‐infected or colonised non surgical wounds

Non surgical wounds include chronic skin ulcers (such as pressure sores or diabetic ulcers), burns and traumatic wounds. Methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can be present in 7% to 30% of such wounds, and the MRSA may spread into the bloodstream, causing a life‐threatening illness. A proportion of the wounds in which MRSA was present show signs of infection such as redness, pain, and pus discharge. The presence of MRSA without infection is called colonisation. It is not clear whether antibiotics should be used in MRSA colonised non‐surgical wounds. The antibiotic that has to be used in MRSA‐infected wounds is also not clear. We tried to find this out by performing a thorough search of the medical literature for studies that compared different antibiotic treatments for MRSA‐infected or MRSA‐colonised non surgical wounds. We included only randomised controlled trials, as, if they are conducted properly, they provide the best information. We included all relevant randomised controlled trials irrespective of the language in which the study was reported, the year of publication, and the number of people included in them. Two review authors independently identified the trials and extracted the relevant information in order to decrease the chance of an error occurring during this process.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Measures for Guiding Antibiotic Treatment for Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia [Internet]

To conduct a systematic review of the use of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) measures or strategies to dose and monitor intravenous (IV) antibiotics in the treatment of adults with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP).

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: November 2014
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Preterm Labour and Birth

This guideline reviews the evidence for the care of women who present with signs and symptoms of preterm labour and those who are scheduled to have a preterm birth. It also reviews how preterm birth can be optimally diagnosed in symptomatic women, given that many women thought to be in preterm labour when clinically assessed will not deliver preterm. Optimal diagnosis can facilitate transfer to a place where appropriate neonatal intensive care can be provided, a strategy known to improve rates of survival for the baby. Additional areas that will be covered by the guidance (such as information needs for women who presents with signs and symptoms of preterm labour) are outlined in the guideline scope.

NICE Guideline - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: November 2015
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Surgical Site Infection: Prevention and Treatment of Surgical Site Infection

Infections that occur in the wound created by an invasive surgical procedure are generally referred to as surgical site infections (SSIs). SSIs are one of the most important causes of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). A prevalence survey undertaken in 2006 suggested that approximately 8% of patients in hospital in the UK have an HCAI. SSIs accounted for 14% of these infections and nearly 5% of patients who had undergone a surgical procedure were found to have developed an SSI. However, prevalence studies tend to underestimate SSI because many of these infections occur after the patient has been discharged from hospital.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: October 2008
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Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs in Inpatient Settings: A Systematic Review [Internet]

It is estimated that in 2009, more than 3 million kilograms of antimicrobials were administered to human patients in the United States. While the life-saving benefits of antimicrobials are indisputable, the consequences of use and misuse must also be considered. Major concerns related to the use of antimicrobials are increasing resistance, higher incidence of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection (CDI) and increased healthcare costs (including costs related to adverse events associated with antimicrobial use).

Evidence-based Synthesis Program - Department of Veterans Affairs (US).

Version: September 2013
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Bacterial Meningitis and Meningococcal Septicaemia: Management of Bacterial Meningitis and Meningococcal Septicaemia in Children and Young People Younger than 16 Years in Primary and Secondary Care

This guideline covers bacterial meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia, focusing on management of these conditions in children and young people aged younger than 16 years in primary and secondary care, and using evidence of direct relevance to these age groups where available.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: 2010
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Atopic Eczema in Children: Management of Atopic Eczema in Children from Birth up to the Age of 12 Years

Atopic eczema (atopic dermatitis) is a chronic inflammatory itchy skin condition that develops in early childhood in the majority of cases. It is typically an episodic disease of exacerbation (flares, which may occur as frequently as two or three per month) and remissions, except for severe cases where it may be continuous. Certain patterns of atopic eczema are recognised. In infants, atopic eczema usually involves the face and extensor surfaces of the limbs and, while it may involve the trunk, the napkin area is usually spared. A few infants may exhibit a discoid pattern (circular patches). In older children flexural involvement predominates, as in adults. Diagnostic criteria are discussed in Chapter 3. As with other atopic conditions, such as asthma and allergic rhinitis (hay fever), atopic eczema often has a genetic component. In atopic eczema, inherited factors affect the development of the skin barrier, which can lead to exacerbation of the disease by a large number of trigger factors, including irritants and allergens. Many cases of atopic eczema clear or improve during childhood while others persist into adulthood, and some children who have atopic eczema `will go on to develop asthma and/or allergic rhinitis; this sequence of events is sometimes referred to as the ‘atopic march’. The epidemiology of atopic eczema is considered in Chapter 5, and the impact of the condition on children and their families/caregivers is considered in Sections 4.2 and 4.3.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: December 2007
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Diabetic Foot Problems: Inpatient Management of Diabetic Foot Problems

Despite the publication of strategies on commissioning specialist services for the management and prevention of diabetic foot problems in hospital (‘Putting feet first’, Diabetes UK 2009; ‘Improving emergency and inpatient care for people with diabetes’, Department of Health 2008), there is variation in practice in the inpatient management of diabetic foot problems. This variation is due to a range of factors, including differences in the organisation of care between patients' admission to an acute care setting and discharge. This variability depends on geography, individual trusts, individual specialties (such as whether the service is managed by vascular surgery, general surgery, orthopaedics, diabetologists or general physicians) and the availability of podiatrists with expertise in diabetic foot disease.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (UK).

Version: March 2011
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Pneumonia: Diagnosis and Management of Community- and Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults

The microbial causes of pneumonia vary according to its origin and the immune constitution of the patient. Pneumonia is classified into community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and pneumonia in the immunocompromised. The guideline development process is guided by its scope - published after stakeholder consultation. This guideline does not cover all aspects of pneumonia, but focuses on areas of uncertainty or variable practice and those considered of greatest clinical importance. Best practice guidance on the diagnosis and management of CAP and HAP is offered, based on systematic analysis of clinical and economic evidence with the aim of reducing mortality and morbidity from pneumonia and maximising resources.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: December 2014
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Diabetic Foot Problems: Prevention and Management

Despite the publication of strategies on commissioning specialist services for preventing and managing diabetic foot problems, there is variation in practice across different NHS settings, and amputation rates still vary up to fourfold in the UK.

NICE Guideline - Internal Clinical Guidelines team.

Version: August 2015
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Prophylaxis Against Infective Endocarditis: Antimicrobial Prophylaxis Against Infective Endocarditis in Adults and Children Undergoing Interventional Procedures [Internet]

Infective endocarditis (IE) is a rare condition with significant morbidity and mortality. It may arise following bacteraemia in a patient with a predisposing cardiac lesion. In an attempt to prevent this disease, over the past 50 years, at-risk patients have been given antibiotic prophylaxis before dental and certain non-dental interventional procedures.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (UK).

Version: March 2008
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Infection: Prevention and Control of Healthcare-Associated Infections in Primary and Community Care: Partial Update of NICE Clinical Guideline 2

Since the publication of the NICE clinical guideline on the prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) in primary and community care in 2003, many changes have occurred within the NHS that place the patient firmly at the centre of all activities. First, the NHS Constitution for England defines the rights and pledges that every patient can expect regarding their care. To support this, the Care Quality Commission (CQC), the independent regulator of all health and adult social care in England, ensures that health and social care is safe, and monitors how providers comply with established standards. In addition, the legal framework that underpins the guidance has changed since 2003.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: March 2012
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