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Prevents pregnancy. This medicine is a contraceptive.

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Results: 10

Nonoxynol‐9 for preventing vaginal acquisition of HIV infection by women from men

The spermicide nonoxynol‐9 does not prevent women becoming infected with sexually transmitted infections, and when used very frequently has been shown to cause open genital sores (which may theoretically increase the chance of acquiring sexually transmitted HIV infection).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Nonoxynol‐9 for preventing vaginal acquisition of sexually transmitted infections by women from men

There is good evidence that nonoxynol‐9 does not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STI), and there is some evidence that it may be harmful by increasing the rate of genital ulceration. As such, this product cannot be recommended for STI prevention.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Effect of the vaginal sponge and the diaphragm in preventing pregnancy

The vaginal sponge is a birth control method used in the birth canal. The sponge is soft and round, and has a loop on it for removal. The sponge contains a chemical to kill sperm. The diaphragm is a rubber circle that goes in the birth canal. It helps to keep sperm from getting into the womb. The diaphragm also holds a chemical to kill sperm. This review compared how well these two methods work in preventing pregnancy.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

The safety of candidate vaginal microbicides since nonoxynol-9: a systematic review of published studies

The authors concluded that larger and longer-term studies were required to detect clinically important toxicities of vaginal microbicides, including adverse effects that may be associated with a potential increase in HIV risk. Although there were limitations in the conduct of this review, the authors’ conclusions appeared to reflect limited evidence from small short-term studies and are likely to be reliable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2009

Spermicide used alone for birth control

Spermicides have been used as birth control for thousands of years. Studies have recently looked at how well they work to prevent pregnancy and whether women like them. Spermicides contain an active ingredient (usually nonoxynol‐9) and something to disperse the product, such as foam or vaginal suppository (pessary). This review compared how well different spermicides worked for birth control when used alone.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Topical microbicides for prevention of sexually transmitted infections

Microbicide research has had disappointing outcomes during the last two decades as most microbicides have not shown evidence that they can prevent acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, a recent small preliminary study suggests that microbicides containing the antiretroviral drug tenofovir may prevent acquisition of HIV and herpes simplex virus infection in women; but further research is needed to assess the generalisability of these findings. Therefore, there is not enough evidence to recommend topical microbicides for HIV or STI prevention at present.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Weighing the gold in the gold standard: challenges in HIV prevention research

OBJECTIVE(S): Few HIV prevention interventions have been evaluated in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We examined design, implementation, and contextual considerations that may limit detection of a positive or adverse effect in HIV prevention trials.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2010

Effectiveness of interventions for the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in female sex workers in resource poor setting: a systematic review

This review evaluated the effectiveness of human immunodeficiency virus and sexually transmitted infection prevention interventions in female sex workers in resource-poor settings. The authors concluded that there was some evidence for the efficacy of multi-component interventions and/or structural interventions. Due to the limitations of the primary studies and possibility of error and bias these conclusions may not be reliable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2008

Randomized controlled trials of individual-level, population-level, and multilevel interventions for preventing sexually transmitted infections: what has worked?

This review evaluated interventions for preventing the acquisition, transmission or complications of sexually transmitted infections (STI). The authors concluded that many interventions have been shown to be effective against STIs but few have been widely implemented or evaluated in a range of settings. The conclusions should be treated with caution because of a risk that relevant studies could have been missed.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2005

Randomized controlled trials of interventions to prevent sexually transmitted infections: learning from the past to plan for the future

The authors found that most of a wide range of interventions were efficacious in preventing infection with at least one STI. Treatment interventions and vaccines showed the greatest effects. Shortcomings in the review process, a lack of patient and study details, limited outcome data and wide variation among the included studies mean the authors' conclusions should be interpreted with caution.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2010

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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