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Moclobemide is a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor used to treat certain types of mental depression.

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A metaanalysis of clinical trials comparing moclobemide with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for the treatment of major depressive disorder

The authors concluded that moclobemide and selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors do not differ in their overall effectiveness in the treatment of major depressive disorder, but they do differ with respect to side-effects. The authors' conclusions reflect the evidence presented. However, given the methodological weaknesses in the review process, the reliability of their conclusions is unclear.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2006

Treatment of depression with atypical features: a meta-analytic approach

The review determined the efficacy of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) for first-line treatment of atypical depression. The authors concluded that MAOIs may be more effective for atypical major depressive disorder than tricyclic antidepressants. While this cautious conclusion appears to reflect the data presented, small datasets, uncertain quality of the included studies and the lack of a reported review process limit confidence in interpreting these results.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2006

Depression in Adults with a Chronic Physical Health Problem: Treatment and Management

This clinical guideline was commissioned by NICE and developed by the National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health. It sets out clear, evidenceand consensus-based recommendations for healthcare staff on how to treat and manage depression in adults with a chronic physical health problem.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2010
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Drug Class Review: Drugs for Fibromyalgia: Final Original Report [Internet]

We compared the effectiveness and harms of tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, noradrenergic and specific serotonergic reuptake inhibitor, norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor, serotonin receptor antagonist, antiepileptic drugs, and skeletal muscle relaxants in adults with fibromyalgia.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: April 2011
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Evidence Synthesis for Determining the Efficacy of Psychotherapy for Treatment Resistant Depression [Internet]

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent disorder impacting an estimated 13% of the general population, and a third of the veteran population. Of the patients who experience at least one depressive episode, approximately 20% will experience chronic depression and 60–85% will experience recurrence and relapse. Antidepressant medications are the most commonly prescribed treatment modality for MDD and are often the first line of treatment in primary care settings. However, fewer than 50% of patients fully remit after adequate dosage of antidepressant treatment. Treatment options for these “treatment resistant” patients vary but typically involve using other psychoactive medications as augmentation (i.e., addition of another medication) or substitution treatment (i.e., switching medications). Less attention has been paid to using psychotherapy as an augmentation or substitution treatment for treatment resistant patients, despite psychotherapy being associated with clinical improvements in MDD comparable to those achieved with antidepressants. The current review will address the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic approaches as a second step treatment for MDD in patients who do not achieve remission after initial treatment with antidepressants.

Evidence-based Synthesis Program - Department of Veterans Affairs (US).

Version: October 2009
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Depression in Children and Young People: Identification and Management in Primary, Community and Secondary Care

This guideline has been developed to advise on the identification and management of depression in children and young people in primary, community and secondary care. The guideline recommendations have been developed by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, carers, and guideline methodologists after careful consideration of the best available evidence. It is intended that the guidelines will be useful to clinicians and service commissioners in providing and planning high-quality care for children and young people with depression while also emphasising the importance of the experience of care for patients and their families.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2005
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Dementia: A NICE-SCIE Guideline on Supporting People With Dementia and Their Carers in Health and Social Care

This guideline has been developed to advise on supporting people with dementia and their carers in health and social care. The guideline recommendations have been developed by a multidisciplinary team of health and social care professionals, a person with dementia, carers and guideline methodologists after careful consideration of the best available evidence. It is intended that the guideline will be useful to practitioners and service commissioners in providing and planning high-quality care for those with dementia while also emphasising the importance of the experience of care for people with dementia and carers.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2007
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Drug Class Review: Second-Generation Antidepressants: Final Update 5 Report [Internet]

We compared the effectiveness and harms of second-generation antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), dysthymia, subsyndromal depression, seasonal affective disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, social anxiety disorder, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: March 2011
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Bipolar Disorder: The Management of Bipolar Disorder in Adults, Children and Adolescents, in Primary and Secondary Care

This guideline has been developed to advise on the treatment and management of bipolar disorder. The guideline recommendations have been developed by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, patients and guideline methodologists after careful consideration of the best available evidence. It is intended that the guidelines will be useful to clinicians and service commissioners in providing and planning high quality care for those with bipolar disorder while also emphasising the importance of the experience of care for patients and carers.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2006
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Screening for Depression in Adults and Older Adults in Primary Care: An Updated Systematic Review [Internet]

Depression causes significant suffering and is commonly seen in primary care. Because primary care providers sometimes fail to identify patients as depressed, systematic screening programs in primary care may be of use in improving outcomes in depressed patients. Depression screening is predicated on the notion that identification will allow effective treatments to be delivered and that the benefits of treatment will outweigh the harms. Treatment efficacy of antidepressants and psychotherapy in general adult populations was established in a previous United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSFT) review on depression screening, but treatment in older adults was not examined specifically. Additionally, harms of screening and treatment were not previously examined in detail.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: December 2009
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Efficacy and acceptability of acute treatments for persistent depressive disorder: a network meta-analysis

BACKGROUND: We aimed to synthesize the available evidence on the relative efficacy and acceptability of specific treatments for persistent depressive disorder.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) for fibromyalgia

This summary of a Cochrane review presents what we know from research about the effect of MAOIs for fibromyalgia (FM).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Medication for social anxiety disorder

Social phobia (SP), or social anxiety disorder, is increasingly viewed as a prevalent and disabling medical disorder. This systematic review of randomized placebo‐controlled trials (RCTs) provides evidence of the efficacy of medication, and SSRIs in particular, in treating social phobia. Summary statistics for responder status (using the Clinical Global Impressions scale change item (CGI‐I)) and for SP symptoms and symptom clusters (using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS)) demonstrated that medication was significantly more effective than placebo. This effect was most consistently observed amongst the SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors), and to a lesser extent amongst the MAOIs (monoamine oxidase inhibitors) and the reversible inhibitors of monoamine oxidase A, brofaromine and moclobemide. The same pattern was observed in the reduction of comorbid depression and associated disability. Furthermore, maintenance and relapse prevention studies confirm the value of longer‐term medication in treatment responders.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to improve cognitive dysfunction and functional ability in clinical depression – a systematic review

Cognitive dysfunction is of clinical significance and exerts longstanding implication on patients׳ function. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments of cognitive dysfunction are emerging. This review evaluates pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments of cognitive impairment primarily in the domains of memory, attention, processing speed and executive function in clinical depression. A total of 35 studies were retrieved from Pubmed, PsycInfo and Scopus after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results show that various classes of antidepressants exert improving effects on cognitive function across several cognitive domains. Specifically, studies suggest that SSRIs, the SSRE tianeptine, the SNRI duloxetine, vortioxetine and other antidepressants such as bupropion and moclobemide may exert certain improving effects on cognitive function in depression, such as in learning and memory and executive function. Class-specific cognitive domains or specific dose-response relationships were not identified yet. The few non-pharmacological studies conducted employing cognitive orientated treatments and cognitive remediation therapy show promising results for the improvement of cognitive impairment in depression. However, several methodological constraints of studies limit generalizability of the results and caution the interpretation. Future direction should consider the development of a neuropsychological consensus cognitive battery to support the discovery, clinical assessment, comparison of studies and registration of new agents in clinical depression.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Review of the long-term effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy compared to medications in panic disorder

This review assessed the long-term effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) in patients with panic disorder. The authors concluded that more data are required before definitive conclusions can be drawn about the long-term effectiveness of CBT. These conclusions are likely to be reliable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2003

Antidepressants and their effect on sleep

This review examined the effect of antidepressants on sleep in depressed patients and others. The authors concluded that the effect of antidepressants on sleep varies between compounds within antidepressant classes, as well as between classes. As a full validity assessment was not carried out, and there were issues with the review methodology, the reliability of this conclusion is not clear.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2005

Antidepressants compared with placebo for bulimia nervosa

Individual antidepressants are effective for the treatment of bulimia nervosa when compared to placebo treatment, with an overall greater remission rate but a higher rate of dropouts.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Depression: The Treatment and Management of Depression in Adults (Updated Edition)

This clinical guideline on depression is an updated edition of the previous guidance (published in 2004). It was commissioned by NICE and developed by the National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health, and sets out clear, evidence- and consensus-based recommendations for healthcare staff on how to treat and manage depression in adults.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2010
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Do medications used to treat depression help smokers who are trying to quit

Some medications and supplements that have been used to treat depression (antidepressants) have been tested to see whether they also help people who are trying to stop smoking. Two antidepressants, bupropion (Zyban) and nortriptyline, are sometimes prescribed to help with quitting smoking. This review set out to determine if using antidepressants increased people's likelihood of successfully quitting smoking at six months or longer and to determine the safety of using these medications to help quit smoking.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Pirlindole in the treatment of depression: a meta-analysis

The review concluded that pirlindole was comparable to its comparators in terms of efficacy and significantly better at reducing anxiety. The author's conclusions are in line with the evidence presented, but the limited number of studies included in some analyses and limitations in trial quality and the review process mean these results should be interpreted with caution.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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