Home > Search Results
  • We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information

Racemethionine is used to make the urine more acidic.

UsesSide effectsLatest evidence reviewsResearch summaries for consumersBrand names

Results: 21 to 40 of 40

Antioxidants for treating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

There is no cure for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as motor neuron disease, which is a progressively disabling and ultimately fatal disease. Antioxidants, including vitamins C, E, selegiline, selenium, methionineacetylcysteine, and coenzyme Q10, have been suggested as possible treatments and some of these are commonly advised by physicians treating people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In this updated review, we identified 10 studies involving a total of 1015 participants. We did not find any well‐designed randomized controlled trial evidence to support the use of these medications. Trials of antioxidants identified in this review were generally of poor methodological quality and lacked statistical power. However, antioxidants are generally well tolerated without serious adverse effects.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Efficacy of ursodeoxycholic acid in treating intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: a meta-analysis

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on pruritus, liver test results, and outcomes of babies born to women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP).

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

Do medications used to treat depression help smokers who are trying to quit

Some medications and supplements that have been used to treat depression (antidepressants) have been tested to see whether they also help people who are trying to stop smoking. Two antidepressants, bupropion (Zyban) and nortriptyline, are sometimes prescribed to help with quitting smoking. This review set out to determine if using antidepressants increased people's likelihood of successfully quitting smoking at six months or longer and to determine the safety of using these medications to help quit smoking.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Cysteine, cystine or N‐acetylcysteine supplementation in parenterally fed neonates

Sick or preterm newborn infants may require intravenous nutrition, including intravenous administration of solutions containing amino acids. Newborn infants need cysteine (an amino acid) for growth under certain conditions. Cysteine may decrease the chance of liver disease and brittle bones. This systemic review was done to analyze whether adding cysteine (or related compounds) to intravenous nutrition affects growth and other outcomes in newborn infants. Five trials studied the effects of adding cysteine to intravenous nutrition that did not contain cysteine. Addition of cysteine significantly improved the babies' ability to build body proteins (analyzed in four studies); however, it did not improve growth (analyzed in one study); no other outcomes were available. One large randomized trial studied the effect of adding another chemical, N‐acetyl‐cysteine, to intravenous nutrition that already contained cysteine. This study showed no benefit and no toxicity of this intervention. We conclude that present data are insufficient to justify routine addition of cysteine to the intravenous nutrition of newborn infants that does not contain cysteine. Available evidence does not support routine addition of N‐acetylcysteine to intravenous nutrition of newborn infants containing cysteine.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

B‐complex vitamin therapy for preventing cardiovascular events

Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. The most common causes of cardiovascular disease leading to both morbidity and mortality are ischaemic heart disease, stroke, and congestive heart failure. Many people with cardiovascular diseases may be asymptomatic, and may have a high risk for developing myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, stroke (ischaemic, haemorrhagic or both). 'Emergent or new risk factors' for cardiovascular disease have been recently added to the established risk factors (diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, active smoker, adverse blood lipid profile). One of these risk factors is elevated circulating total homocysteine levels. Homocysteine is an amino acid, and its levels in blood are influenced by blood levels of B‐complex vitamins: cyanocobalamin (B12), folic acid (B9) and pyridoxine (B6). High plasma total homocysteine levels are associated with an increased risk of atherosclerotic diseases. Hence, it has been suggested that B vitamin supplementation might reduce the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, and angina pectoris. Preventive strategies might include healthy people with low or high risk for developing cardiovascular disease (primary prevention) and people with an established cardiovascular disease (secondary prevention). In this updated review, we included 12 randomised clinical trials involving 47,429 participants living in countries with or without mandatory fortification. We found no evidence that homocysteine‐lowering interventions, in the form of supplements of vitamins B6, B9 or B12 given alone or in combination, at any dosage compared with placebo or standard care, prevent myocardial infarction, stroke, or reduce total mortality in participants at risk or with established cardiovascular disease. Homocysteine‐lowering interventions compared with placebo did not significantly affect serious adverse events (cancer).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/CT in bone and soft tissue tumours: Executive summary of final report D06-01K, Version 1.0

The primary goal of the report was to describe the patient-relevant benefit that doctors and patients can expect from the imaging techniques PET and PET/CT in the primary diagnostics, primary staging, restaging and recurrence diagnostics of bone and soft tissue tumours. “Benefit” was understood here to mean the changes that are causally attributed to the use of PET or PET/CT and that have perceptible consequences for the patient.

Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care: Executive Summaries [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: December 20, 2012

Childhood Craniopharyngioma Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of childhood craniopharyngioma

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: January 27, 2014

Self-Harm: The Short-Term Physical and Psychological Management and Secondary Prevention of Self-Harm in Primary and Secondary Care

This guideline has been developed to advise on the short-term physical and psychological management and secondary prevention of self-harm in primary and secondary care. The guideline recommendations have been developed by a multidisciplinary group of healthcare professionals, patients and their representatives, and researchers after careful consideration of the best available evidence. It is intended that the guideline will be useful to clinicians and service commissioners in providing and planning high quality care for those people who self-harm while also emphasising the importance of the experience of care for service users and carers.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2004
Show search results within this document

Vitamin, Mineral, and Multivitamin Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: A Systematic Evidence Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force [Internet]

In the United States, dietary supplements are commonly used to prevent chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: November 2013
Show search results within this document

Assessment of Thiopurine Methyltransferase Activity in Patients Prescribed Azathioprine or Other Thiopurine-Based Drugs

To examine whether pretreatment determination of thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) enzymatic activity (phenotyping) or TPMT genotype, to guide thiopurine therapy in chronic autoimmune disease patients, reduces treatment harms. Other objectives included assessing: preanalytic, analytic, and postanalytic requirements for TPMT testing; diagnostic accuracy of TPMT genotyping versus phenotyping; association of thiopurine toxicity with TPMT genotypic or phenotypic status; and costs of testing, care, and treating drug-associated complications.

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: December 2010
Show search results within this document

Nitrous Oxide for the Management of Labor Pain [Internet]

The Vanderbilt Evidence-based Practice Center systematically reviewed evidence addressing the use of nitrous oxide for the management of labor pain.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: August 2012
Show search results within this document

Vitamin D and Calcium: A Systematic Review of Health Outcomes

Since the 1997 Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) values for vitamin D and calcium were established new data have become available on their relationship, both individually and combined, to a wide range of health outcomes. The Institute of Medicine/Food and Nutrition Board has constituted a DRI committee to undertake a review of the evidence and potential revision of the current DRI values for these nutrients. To support this review, several US and Canadian federal government agencies commissioned a systematic review of the scientific literature for use during the deliberations by the committee. The intent of providing a systematic review to the committee is to support transparency of the literature review process and provide a foundation for subsequent reviews of the nutrients.

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: August 2009
Show search results within this document

Clinical Utility of Cancer Family History Collection in Primary Care

This systematic review aimed to evaluate, within unselected populations: the (1) performance of family history (FHx)-based models in predicting cancer risk; (2) overall benefits and harms associated with established cancer prevention interventions; (3) impact of FHx-based risk information on the uptake of preventive interventions; and (4) potential for harms associated with collecting cancer FHx.

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: April 2009
Show search results within this document

Anaemia Management in Chronic Kidney Disease: Rapid Update 2011 [Internet]

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not the most common cause of anaemia in the UK, but data from different sources suggest that nationally there are around 100,000 people with the combination of CKD and a low haemoglobin level. Anaemia in this context is important because it contributes significantly to the heavy symptom burden of CKD, and because it is potentially reversible with appropriate treatment, including erythropoietin. Erythropoietin is naturally produced by the kidneys and has been available in synthetic form for the treatment of anaemia of CKD since 1989, but it remains a fairly expensive product and its usage is not straightforward. Moreover, it will not necessarily be the only therapy required for optimal treatment. Against this background, the present guideline has been commissioned to address the appropriate management of anaemia of CKD for patients in the NHS.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: February 2011
Show search results within this document

Management of Chronic Hepatitis B

Synthesize evidence of the natural history of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and effects and harms of antiviral drugs on clinical, virological, histological, and biochemical outcomes.

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: October 2008
Show search results within this document

Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about factors that may influence the risk of developing colorectal cancer and about research aimed at the prevention of this disease.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: February 27, 2014

Adjuvant Treatment for Phenylketonuria (PKU) [Internet]

We systematically reviewed evidence on adjuvant treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU) and evidence for a target phenylalanine (Phe) level to minimize cognitive impairment.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: February 2012
Show search results within this document

Treatment for Depression After Unsatisfactory Response to SSRIs [Internet]

A comparative effectiveness review was undertaken to evaluate treatment strategies in patients who failed to respond to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) as first-line treatment. The efficacy (benefits and harms) of monotherapy approaches (dose escalation, increased duration, or switch) or combined therapies were evaluated. Efficacy in the context of subgroups was also evaluated. Recommendations in Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) from 2004 to April 2011 were compared.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: April 2012
Show search results within this document

Noninvasive Diagnostic Tests for Breast Abnormalities: Update of a 2006 Review [Internet]

To systematically review the literature on the diagnostic accuracy of noninvasive imaging technologies proposed to be useful as part of the workup after recall of women with suspicious breast abnormalities identified on routine screening. This report is an update of a Comparative Effectiveness Review originally published in 2006.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: February 2012
Show search results within this document

Depression in Adults with a Chronic Physical Health Problem: Treatment and Management

This clinical guideline was commissioned by NICE and developed by the National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health. It sets out clear, evidenceand consensus-based recommendations for healthcare staff on how to treat and manage depression in adults with a chronic physical health problem.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2010
Show search results within this document

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

See all (186)...

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...