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Effectiveness of Assisted Reproductive Technology

We reviewed the evidence regarding the outcomes of interventions used in ovulation induction, superovulation, and in vitro fertilization (IVF) for the treatment of infertility. Short-term outcomes included pregnancy, live birth, multiple gestation, and complications. Long-term outcomes included pregnancy and post-pregnancy complications for both mothers and infants.

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: May 2008
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Oral Progesterone for the Treatment of Menopausal Symptoms: A Review of the Clinical Evidence [Internet]

The purpose of this review is to examine the clinical efficacy of micronized progesterone (Prometrium), a natural, bio-identical hormone, and methoxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; Provera), a synthetic hormone, individually and comparatively, for the management of menopausal symptoms.

Rapid Response Report: Summary with Critical Appraisal - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: April 29, 2014
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Primary Care Management of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding [Internet]

The Vanderbilt Evidence-based practice Center systematically reviewed evidence about interventions for symptomatic abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), both irregular and cyclic. We focused on interventions that are suitable for use in primary care practice including medical, behavioral, and complementary and alternative medicine approaches.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: March 2013
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Heavy Menstrual Bleeding

Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) has an adverse effect on the quality of life of many women. It is not a problem associated with significant mortality. Many women seek help from their general practitioners and it is a common reason for referral into secondary care.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: January 2007
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Prostate Cancer: Diagnosis and Treatment

The original Prostate Cancer: Diagnosis and Treatment Guideline published in 2008 was the first clinical guideline produced by the National Collaborating Centre for Cancer (NCC-C); accordingly this is now the first NCC-C clinical guideline to be reviewed and updated. Many areas of the original guideline are unchanged as there is little or no new evidence; other aspects have been completely rewritten. As ever there are still many topics where the research evidence is incomplete or conflicting, and so the Guideline Development Group (GDG) have been required to reach a consensus using the evidence available to them in several areas. In places where it was clear that further work needed to be done, new research recommendations have been made which we hope will be used as the basis for future research work.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Cancer (UK).

Version: January 2014
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Long-acting Reversible Contraception: The Effective and Appropriate Use of Long-Acting Reversible Contraception

Contraception can be divided into two broad categories: hormonal and nonhormonal. There are two categories of hormonal contraception: combined oestrogen and progestogen and progestogen-only. Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) is defined in this guideline as methods that require administering less than once per cycle or month.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women’s and Children’s Health (UK).

Version: October 2005
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Drug Class Review: Hormone Therapy for Postmenopausal Women or Women in the Menopausal Transition Stage: Final Report Update # 3 [Internet]

Estrogen was approved as a hormone supplement in the 1940's to treat estrogen withdrawal symptoms in menopausal women. Estrogen production declines in women when ovarian function changes with aging or after surgical removal of the ovaries. This drop in estrogen levels can trigger a vasomotor response resulting in a sensation of flushing and sweating that interferes with function and sleep (hot flashes or flushes). Studies conducted in recent years have identified additional health benefits of postmenopausal estrogen besides symptom management (osteoporosis) as well as potential harms (cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, and cholecystitis). The purpose of this review was to compare the efficacy and adverse effects of different estrogens.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: October 2007
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Diagnosis and Management of Ductal Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS)

Systematic synthesis of the published evidence about incidence, risk factors, and management options for women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) of the breast.

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: September 2009

Systematic Review of Women Veterans Health Research 2004–2008 [Internet]

Women are playing an ever increasing role in the US military, representing about 15% of active military personnel, 17% of reserve and National Guard forces, and 20% of new military recruits. Concurrently, women are one of the fastest growing groups of new users in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Healthcare System, with particularly high rates of utilization among veterans of Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Of the more than 100,000 OEF/OIF women veterans, over 44% have enrolled in the VA system for health care. Thus, women veterans represent an integral part of the veteran community.

Evidence-based Synthesis Program - Department of Veterans Affairs.

Version: October 2010
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Injectable birth control with both progestin and estrogen

Birth control methods that can be injected may contain two hormones, a progestin and an estrogen. These combined injectable contraceptives (CICs) are effective in preventing pregnancy and can be stopped when a woman wants to get pregnant. This review looked at CICs for how well they prevented pregnancy and for the bleeding patterns and other side effects that may occur. We also studied whether women stopped using them early and whether women liked them.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Hormone contraceptives and how the body uses carbohydrates in women without diabetes

Hormone contraceptives may change how the body handles carbohydrates (starches and sugars). Changes may include lower ability to use sugar from food and more problems with the body's insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps the body use sugar. Problems with blood sugar can increase risk for diabetes and heart disease. These issues have been raised mainly with birth control methods that contain the hormone estrogen.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Treatment To Prevent Fractures in Men and Women With Low Bone Density or Osteoporosis: Update of a 2007 Report [Internet]

To update a 2007 systematic review on the effectiveness and safety of treatments to prevent fractures in persons with low bone density or osteoporosis and factors affecting adherence to these treatments, and to assess whether monitoring helps identify those most likely to benefit from treatment and the benefits of long-term treatment.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: March 2012
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Advanced Breast Cancer: Diagnosis and Treatment

Breast cancer is the most common cancer for women in England and Wales, with about 37,000 new cases diagnosed and 11,000 deaths recorded in England and Wales each year. In men breast cancer is rare, with about 270 cases diagnosed, and 70 deaths in England and Wales each year. Of these new cases in women and men, around 10% are diagnosed in the advanced stages, when the tumour has spread significantly within the breast or to other organs of the body. In addition, there is a significant number of women who have been previously treated with curative intent who subsequently develop either a local recurrence or metastases. Over recent years there have been important developments in the investigation and management of these patients including new chemotherapy, and biological and hormonal agents. There is some evidence of practice variation across the country and of patchy availability of certain treatments and procedures. A clinical guideline will help to address these issues and offer guidance on best practice.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Cancer (UK).

Version: February 2009
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Hot Flashes and Night Sweats (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about causes and treatment of hot flashes and night sweats in cancer patients.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 14, 2014

Oral Contraceptive Use for the Primary Prevention of Ovarian Cancer

To estimate the overall balance of harms and benefits from the potential use of oral contraceptives (OCs) for the primary prevention of ovarian cancer

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: June 2013
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Comparative Effectiveness of Medications To Reduce Risk of Primary Breast Cancer in Women [Internet]

The purpose of this review is to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of tamoxifen citrate, raloxifene, and tibolone to reduce risk for primary breast cancer, assess the nature and magnitude of harms, and examine how benefits and harms vary by age, breast cancer risk status, and other factors. In addition, it examines issues related to clinical effectiveness, such as patient choice, concordance, adherence, and persistence of use, and evaluates methods to appropriately select patients for medication therapy to reduce risk of breast cancer.

AHRQ Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: September 2009
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Screening for Osteoporosis: Systematic Review to Update the 2002 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation [Internet]

Osteoporosis and related fractures are common in older individuals and lead to premature mortality, loss of function and independence, reduced quality of life, and high costs. Despite its importance, osteoporosis is under detected in the United States. This review updates evidence since the 2002 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation on osteoporosis screening.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: July 2010

Therapeutic Management, Delivery, and Postpartum Risk Assessment and Screening in Gestational Diabetes

We focused on four questions: (1) What are the risks and benefits of an oral diabetes agent (i.e., glyburide), as compared to all types of insulin, for gestational diabetes? (2) What is the evidence that elective labor induction, cesarean delivery, or timing of induction is associated with benefits or harm to the mother and neonate? (3) What risk factors are associated with the development of type 2 diabetes after gestational diabetes? (4) What are the performance characteristics of diagnostic tests for type 2 diabetes in women with gestational diabetes?

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: March 2008
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Screening for Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults: An Evidence Update for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force [Internet]

We conducted this systematic review to support the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) in updating its recommendation on screening for cognitive impairment in older adults. Our review addresses five questions: 1) Does screening for cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older adults improve decisionmaking, patient, family/caregiver, or societal outcomes?; 2) What is the test performance of screening instruments to detect dementia or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in community-dwelling older adult primary care patients?; 3) What are the harms of screening for cognitive impairment?; 4) Do interventions for early dementia or MCI in older adults improve decisionmaking, patient, family/caregiver, or societal outcomes?; and 5) What are the harms of interventions for cognitive impairment?

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: November 2013
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Endometrial Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about factors that may influence the risk of developing endometrial cancer and about research aimed at the prevention of this disease.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: January 23, 2015

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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