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Using the combined vaccine for protection of children against measles, mumps and rubella

Measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) are three very dangerous infectious diseases which cause severe morbidity, disability and death in low‐income countries.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Public Health Interventions to Reduce the Secondary Spread of Measles [Internet]

Measles is a highly communicable infectious disease, with 90% of susceptible contacts (those who have not had measles or are unimmunized) becoming infected after exposure to a person with measles. Serious complications include blindness, encephalitis, and pneumonia. Treatment is limited; however, measles is largely preventable through immunization, with efficacy approaching 100% after two doses of measles-containing vaccine. Although vaccination programs have eliminated endemic measles (i.e., measles circulating within the country) in Canada, outbreaks occur due to foreign travel and pools of unimmunized Canadians. Public health interventions to reduce the secondary spread of measles are vaccination of susceptible contacts; human immunoglobulin (Ig) for susceptible contacts; quarantine of susceptible contacts; isolation of active measles cases; and special vaccination clinics or activities during outbreaks to increase population immunization coverage. The objective of this study is to inform the development of a Canadian public health intervention strategy by systematically reviewing the clinical evidence on the effectiveness of these five public health interventions in reducing the secondary spread of measles during an outbreak in a population similar to Canada that has achieved elimination of endemic measles.

Rapid Response Report: Systematic Review - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: May 2015
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Immunogenicity and safety of measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine: a systematic review

Bibliographic details: Wu YM, Li G, Zhao WL.  Immunogenicity and safety of measles-mumps-rubella-varicella vaccine: a systematic review. Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine 2010; 10(7): 862-868

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2010

Immunogenicity and safety of aerosolized measles vaccine: systematic review and meta-analysis

Aerosols are the most promising non-injectable method of measles vaccination studied so far and their efficacy is thought to be comparable to injected vaccine. We conducted a systematic review up to May 2006 to examine the immunogenicity and safety of aerosolized measles vaccine (Edmonston-Zagreb or Schwarz strains) 1 month or more after vaccination. Where possible we estimated pooled serological response rates and odds ratios (with 95% confidence intervals, CI) comparing aerosolized and subcutaneous vaccines in children in three age groups and adults. We included seven randomized trials, four non-randomized trials and six uncontrolled studies providing serological outcome data on 2887 individuals. In children below 10 months, the studies were heterogeneous. In four comparative studies, seroconversion rates were lower with aerosolized than with subcutaneous vaccine and in two of these the difference was unlikely to be due to chance. In children 10-36 months, the pooled seroconversion rate with aerosolized vaccine was 93.5% (89.4-97.7%) and 97.1% (92.4-100%) with subcutaneous vaccine (odds ratio 0.27, 0.04-1.62). In 5-15-year olds the studies were heterogeneous. In all comparative studies aerosolized vaccine was more immunogenic than subcutaneous. Reported side effects were mild. Aerosolized measles vaccine appears to be equally or more immunogenic than subcutaneous vaccine in children aged 10 months and older. Large randomized trials are needed to establish the efficacy and safety of aerosolized measles vaccine as primary and booster doses.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2008

Antibiotics for preventing complications in children with measles

Measles is an infectious disease caused by a virus. There is an effective vaccine which can prevent measles, nevertheless 30 to 40 million people worldwide still develop measles annually. Each year measles causes more than half a million deaths and is responsible for an estimated 44% of the 1.7 million vaccine‐preventable deaths among children. Measles is associated with complications such as pneumonia, ear infections, throat infections, diarrhea and conjunctivitis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Costs of Contact Tracing Activities Aimed at Reducing the Transmission of Measles in Canada [Internet]

The aim of this project is to estimate the costs and/or health care resource use associated with contact tracing in response to a measles outbreak in Canada.

Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: May 2015
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Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines and diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders among children: a meta-analysis

Bibliographic details: Hobson KA, Mateu PF, Coryn CL, Graves C.  Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines and diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders among children: a meta-analysis. World Medical and Health Policy 2012; 4(2): 5 Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1515/1948-4682.1225/abstract

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

Safety of live-virus vaccines for children with immune deficiency

PURPOSE: Conduct an integrative literature review to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of live-virus vaccines, namely, the measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccines, in children who are immune compromised by exogenous medication either posttransplant or while undergoing maintenance chemotherapy for leukemia.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2006

Zinc supplementation for the treatment of measles in children

Measles infection has reduced globally over the last decade but large outbreaks still occur, especially in low‐income countries. Zinc is one of the essential micronutrients necessary for the optimal functioning of the immune system. Zinc deficiency is particularly common in children in low‐ and middle‐income countries. It is therefore important to examine the potential role of zinc supplementation in controlling the symptoms of measles infection in children.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Antibodies for preventing measles after exposure

People who have had measles, or measles vaccine, have antibodies against the virus in their blood that protect them from developing measles should they come into contact with it. These antibodies can be extracted from blood donated by these individuals.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Passive immunisation (giving antibodies) for preventing rubella (German measles) after contact with it

People who have had rubella (German measles), or rubella vaccine, have antibodies against the virus in their blood. These antibodies protect them from getting rubella should they come into contact with it again. These antibodies can be extracted from blood donated by these people.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Measles vaccination in HIV-infected children: systematic review and meta-analysis of safety and immunogenicity

BACKGROUND: Measles control may be more challenging in regions with a high prevalence of HIV infection. HIV-infected children are likely to derive particular benefit from measles vaccines because of an increased risk of severe illness. However, HIV infection can impair vaccine effectiveness and may increase the risk of serious adverse events after receipt of live vaccines. We conducted a systematic review to assess the safety and immunogenicity of measles vaccine in HIV-infected children.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

Association of autistic spectrum disorder and the measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine: a systematic review of current epidemiological evidence

This review assessed the association between autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine. The authors found no association between ASD and MMR, but there was insufficient evidence to completely exclude a possible association between MMR and a rare variant form of ASD. This was a well-conducted review, but the quality and nature of the included studies were varied.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2003

Vaccination in paediatric patients with auto-immune rheumatic diseases: a systematic literature review for the European League against Rheumatism evidence-based recommendations

OBJECTIVES: To analyze available evidence on vaccinations in paediatric patients with rheumatic and autoinflammatory diseases. This evidence formed the basis of the recently constructed European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) recommendations for vaccination of these patients.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

Effectiveness of measles vaccination and vitamin A treatment

The review concluded that measles vaccine and vitamin A treatment were effective interventions to prevent measles mortality in children. The review had some methodological problems and some of the studies were conducted over 50 years ago, thus a degree of caution is required when interpreting the authors' conclusions.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2010

Efficacy and safety of measles, mumps, rubella and varicella live viral vaccines in transplant recipients receiving immunosuppressive drugs

The authors concluded that available published data on the efficacy and safety of live viral vaccines was insufficient to derive evidence-based guidelines for use of such vaccines in transplant recipients on immunosuppression. The reliability of the authors’ conclusion is unclear given multiple flaws in the review methods and small number of low quality studies reviewed.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2008

Safety of Vaccines Used for Routine Immunization in the United States

To conduct a systematic review of the literature on the safety of vaccines recommended for routine immunization of children, adolescents, and adults in the United States as of 2011.

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: July 2014
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Do childhood vaccines have non-specific effects on mortality?

This review investigated the reduction in mortality in children receiving childhood vaccines. The authors concluded that the measles vaccine reduces mortality, but there is insufficient evidence to suggest a mortality benefit above that caused by its effect on measles disease and its resulting complications. Limitations in methodological quality, and the potential for publication and language bias, should be considered when interpreting the results of this review.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2003

Enabling Medication Management Through Health Information Technology

The objective of the report was to review the evidence on the impact of health information technology (IT) on all phases of the medication management process (prescribing and ordering, order communication, dispensing, administration and monitoring as well as education and reconciliation), to identify the gaps in the literature and to make recommendations for future research.

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: April 2011
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Does reminding people to have vaccinations increase the number of people who receive vaccinations?

Increasing the number of people who are vaccinated could lower death and disease rates throughout the world. Many strategies to increase vaccinations have been used. One way is to remind people to receive their vaccinations. This review of 47 studies evaluated whether reminding people worked.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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