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Treats human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. HIV causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Emtricitabine does not cure HIV or AIDS, but combinations of drugs may slow the progress of the disease.

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Results: 1 to 20 of 22

Dolutegravir / abacavir / lamivudine fixed combination (Triumeq) for HIV: Dolutegravir / abacavir / lamivudine for initial treatment in adults with HIV infection

In 2014 the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG, Germany) assessed which advantages and disadvantages dolutegravir / abacavir / lamivudine has compared with previous standard therapies in people who are having initial treatment for HIV. A study looking at efavirenz provided results which were used for a comparison of the two drugs. The patient group that was treated using efavirenz also received the fixed combination tenofovir / emtricitabine.A total of 844 people participated in the study, with one half of them receiving dolutegravir / abacavir / lamivudine and the other half efavirenz / tenofovir / emtricitabine. All data was analyzed after 20 months.The following results apply to people who have not yet taken any other medication to treat HIV.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: January 2, 2015

Comparative efficacy of Lamivudine and emtricitabine: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials

INTRODUCTION: Lamivudine and emtricitabine are considered equivalent by several guidelines, but evidence of comparable efficacy is conflicting.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Management of Chronic Hepatitis B

Synthesize evidence of the natural history of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and effects and harms of antiviral drugs on clinical, virological, histological, and biochemical outcomes.

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: October 2008
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Antiretroviral pre‐exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for preventing HIV in high‐risk individuals

This review evaluated the effects of giving people at high risk for HIV infection drugs to prevent infection (called antiretroviral pre‐exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP). We found six randomised controlled trials that assessed the effects of oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) plus emtricitabine (FTC) versus placebo; TDF versus placebo, and daily TDF‐FTC versus intermittent TDF‐FTC. One of the trials had three study arms (TDF, TDF‐FTC and placebo arm). The trials were carried out amongst different risk groups, including HIV‐uninfected men who have sex with men, people in serodiscordant sexual relationships where one partner is infected and the other is not, and other high risk men and women. The findings suggests that the use of TDF alone or TDF+FTC reduces the risk of becoming infected with HIV. However, further studies are need to evaluate the method of administration (daily versus intermittent dosing), long‐term safety and cost effectiveness of PrEP in different risk groups and settings.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Comparing initial antiretroviral regimens tenofovir or zidovudine as part of three‐drug combinations for treatment of HIV infection

The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) as treatment for HIV infection has greatly improved mortality and morbidity for adults and adolescents living with HIV around the world. Deciding which treatment regimen to begin for first‐line treatment in ART‐naïve patients, however, remains a significant challenge. Two commonly used medications are tenofovir (TDF) and zidovudine (AZT). The purpose of this review was to assess which of these two medications was the best for initial treatment for people living with HIV, and through our search we identified two randomised controlled trials. We did not find any critical difference between the two medications in regards to serious adverse events or virologic response, but did find that TDF is superior to AZT in terms of immunologic response and adherence and more frequent emergence of resistance. However, these two studies are not directly comparable because they used two related different drugs in addition to TDF and AZT. Future studies and recommendations should focus on specific toxicities and tolerability when comparing these two medications.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Dolutegravir / abacavir / lamivudine fixed combination (Triumeq) for HIV: Overview

The fixed combination of dolutegravir / abacavir / lamivudine (trade name: Triumeq) has been approved in Germany since September 2014 for the treatment of HIV infections in adults and adolescents above 12 years of age weighing a minimum of 40 kilograms.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: January 2, 2015

Dolutegravir (Tivicay) for HIV infection: Overview

Dolutegravir (trade name: Tivicay) has been approved in Germany since January 2014 in combination with other antiretroviral drugs for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adults and children over 12 years of age.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: May 15, 2014

Antiretroviral regimens for patients with HIV who fail first‐line antiretroviral therapy

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has greatly reduced the illness and deaths of HIV‐infected people worldwide. There are many options for first‐line antiretroviral therapy (ART), but second‐line therapy is necessary for people who fail the first‐line treatment. This review attempted to assess the best ART regimen for HIV‐infected people in low‐ and middle‐income countries following treatment failure; however, the review found limited studies addressing this topic. One randomised trial and one abstract of an observational study evaluated whether or not to maintain lamivudine in second‐line regimens; both suggested no difference in outcomes. There were no studies comparing boosted PI‐containing second‐line regimens in patients failing an NNRTI‐based first‐line regimen, nor any evaluating NRTI combinations after first‐line with non‐thymidine analog combinations. While such trials are difficult to conduct for a variety of reasons, randomised controlled trails comparing second‐line therapies are needed, especially in resource‐limited settings.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Treatments for Patients with Genotype 1 Chronic Hepatitis C: A Review of Evidence-based Guidelines [Internet]

Approximately 242,000 Canadians are infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), although there are believed to be a number of infected individuals who are unaware that they have HCV. Of those infected, approximately 25% clear infection spontaneously (range 15% to 45%) and the remainder develop chronic hepatitis C (CHC). There are six genotypes and treatment strategy tends to differ depending on genotype.

Rapid Response Report: Summary with Critical Appraisal - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: June 23, 2014
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Screening for HIV in Pregnant Women: Systematic Review to Update the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation [Internet]

A 2005 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) review found good evidence that prenatal HIV screening is accurate and can lead to interventions that reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: November 2012
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Virological efficacy of abacavir: systematic review and meta-analysis

OBJECTIVES: The efficacy of abacavir/lamivudine has been reported to be inferior to tenofovir/emtricitabine. Several randomized clinical trials (RCTs) investigated the effectiveness and safety of abacavir/lamivudine and tenofovir/emtricitabine combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) and we have reviewed the available evidence.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in combination therapy for HIV patients: systematic review and meta-analysis

Treatment guidelines recommend dual nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI ) as a part of combination antiretroviral therapy. The objective of this study was to assess the relative efficacy and toxicity of the dual NRTI part of the regimen in antiretroviral-naïve HIV-1-infected adults. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials assessing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for treatment-naïve HIV-infected adults with a 48-week follow-up were done. We searched the PubMed, CENTRAL, and EMBASE electronic databases up to April 2009. Proceedings from conferences were reviewed. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers. Primary outcome was viral suppression at 48 weeks. The odds ratio (OR) is reported with its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Twenty-two randomized controlled trials, including 8,184 HIV-treatment-naïve patients, were included. The combination didanosine + lamivudine/emtricitabine (four trials, 1,148 patients) was more effective (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.41-0.68) for viral load (VL) >50 copies/ml and less toxic (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.36-0.76) for discontinuation due to adverse events (AE) than its comparators. The combination tenofovir + lamivudine/emtricitabine was more effective and less toxic (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.58-0.96) only in the 144-week follow-up data (two trials, 1,119 patients). Abacavir + lamivudine had similar efficacy to its comparators (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.8-1.1), but more AIDS-defining events (OR 3.22, 95% CI 1.24, 8.40). The once-daily combination didanosine + lamivudine/emtricitabine was found to be effective and tolerable. This combination, soon to be generic, should be compared to the current standard of care in a large randomized trial. An effective, safe, and inexpensive alternative to current options is needed.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2010

Comparative efficacy of nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors in combination with efavirenz: results of a systematic overview

BACKGROUND: Many trials of antiretroviral therapy in treatment-naïve subjects have investigated the relative efficacy of the third drug in a treatment regimen. However, the nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) components may also affect efficacy.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2007

Efficacy of initial antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 114 studies with up to 144 weeks' follow-up

BACKGROUND: A comprehensive assessment of initial HIV-1 treatment success may inform study design and treatment guidelines.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Effects of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor backbone on the efficacy of first-line boosted highly active antiretroviral therapy based on protease inhibitors: meta-regression analysis of 12 clinical trials in 5168 patients

OBJECTIVES: Tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) and abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) are widely used with ritonavir (RTV)-boosted protease inhibitors (PIs) as first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), but there is conflicting evidence on their relative efficacy. The ACTG 5202 and BICOMBO trials suggested higher efficacy for TDF/FTC, whereas the HEAT trial showed no efficacy difference between the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbones.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2009

48-week efficacy and safety of dolutegravir relative to commonly used third agents in treatment-naive HIV-1-infected patients: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

BACKGROUND: A network meta-analysis can provide estimates of relative efficacy for treatments not directly studied in head-to-head randomized controlled trials. We estimated the relative efficacy and safety of dolutegravir (DTG) versus third agents currently recommended by guidelines, including ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r), ritonavir-boosted darunavir (DRV/r), efavirenz (EFV), cobicistat-boosted elvitegravir (EVG/c), ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r), raltegravir (RAL), and rilpivirine (RPV), in treatment-naive HIV-1-infected patients.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Impact of baseline HIV-1 RNA levels on initial highly active antiretroviral therapy outcome: a meta-analysis of 12,370 patients in 21 clinical trials

BACKGROUND: Individual randomized trials of first-line antiretroviral treatment do not consistently show an association between higher baseline HIV-1 RNA and lower efficacy.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Effects of first-line use of nucleoside analogues, efavirenz, and ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors on lipid levels

This review found that there was a wide range of lipid elevations during 48 weeks of ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors or efavirenz in antiretroviral-naive patients, depending on the type of antiretrovirals used. The reliability of the conclusions is unclear due to a lack of reporting of the review process, lack of validity assessment, and unclear suitability of the data synthesis methods.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2009

Emergence of drug resistance in HIV type 1-infected patients after receipt of first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy: a systematic review of clinical trials

This review compared drug resistance profiles of patients with HIV type 1 infection after treatment with first-line antiretroviral therapy. The authors concluded that initial treatment with a boosted protease inhibitor-based regimen was associated with less resistance within and across drug classes. The reliability of this conclusion is unclear due to potential methodological weaknesses and gaps in the reporting process.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2008

Efficacy and tolerability of initial antiretroviral therapy: a systematic review

This review concluded that many factors influenced antiretroviral therapy (ART) success. Didanosine was an effective option for initial ART, particularly in settings with limited resources. And ART guideline development may benefit from an ongoing systematic review of the evidence. These conclusions are appropriate in view of the limited duration and reporting of safety data in included studies.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2009

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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