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Differences in effectiveness and adverse effects between different types of progestogens combined with ethinyl oestradiol (combined contraceptive pill)

Combined oral contraceptives (COC) have an oestrogen and a progestogen component. The type of progestogen and/or amount of oestrogen or progestogen can vary per pack of oral contraceptive pills. The objective of this review was to compare currently available low‐dose COCs containing different progestogens in terms of pregnancy prevention, bleeding pattern, side effects and discontinuation rates.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Birth control pills with drospirenone for treating premenstrual syndrome

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a common problem. A severe form is called premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Birth control pills with the hormones progestin and estrogen have been studied for treating such symptoms. A birth control pill with the progestin drospirenone may work better than other such pills. A drospirenone pill with low estrogen was approved for treating PMDD, the severe form of PMS, in women who use birth control pills.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Drug Class Review: Hormone Therapy for Postmenopausal Women or Women in the Menopausal Transition Stage: Final Report Update # 3 [Internet]

Estrogen was approved as a hormone supplement in the 1940's to treat estrogen withdrawal symptoms in menopausal women. Estrogen production declines in women when ovarian function changes with aging or after surgical removal of the ovaries. This drop in estrogen levels can trigger a vasomotor response resulting in a sensation of flushing and sweating that interferes with function and sleep (hot flashes or flushes). Studies conducted in recent years have identified additional health benefits of postmenopausal estrogen besides symptom management (osteoporosis) as well as potential harms (cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, and cholecystitis). The purpose of this review was to compare the efficacy and adverse effects of different estrogens.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: October 2007
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Menopause: Full Guideline

In summary, a large number of women in the UK experience menopausal symptoms which, in many cases, can significantly affect their quality of life. It is probable that a minority of these women seek medical treatment and for those who do there is considerable variation in the help available, with many being told that the symptoms will get better with time. Since symptoms may often continue for 7 years or more, this advice is inappropriate and help should be offered where possible. Women need to know about the available options and their risks and benefits, and be empowered to become part of the decision-making process.

NICE Guideline - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: November 12, 2015
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Diabetes in Pregnancy: Management of Diabetes and Its Complications from Preconception to the Postnatal Period

Clinical guidelines have been defined as ‘systematically developed statements which assist clinicians and patients in making decisions about appropriate treatment for specific conditions’. This clinical guideline concerns the management of diabetes and its complications from preconception to the postnatal period. It has been developed with the aim of providing guidance on:

NICE Guideline - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: February 2015
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Different combined oral contraceptives and the risk of venous thrombosis: systematic review and network meta-analysis

This review found that combined oral contraceptives were associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis. The effect size depends on the progestogen used and the dose of ethinyl estradiol. Despite some concerns with the quality of the included studies these results are likely to be reliable, and the authors’ conclusions are appropriate.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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