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Treats seizures. Also treats the manic phase of bipolar disorder (manic-depressive illness) and helps prevent migraine headaches. This medicine is an anticonvulsant.

UsesSide effectsLatest evidence reviewsResearch summaries for consumersBrand names

Results: 1 to 20 of 72

L-carnitine for acute valproic acid overdose: a systematic review of published cases

OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence supporting the efficacy and safety of l-carnitine in the management of acute valproic acid overdose.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2010

Valproic acid and sodium valproate for neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia

Neuropathic pain is caused by nerve damage, often accompanied by changes in the central nervous sytem, and fibromyalgia is a related complex pain syndrome. Many people with these conditions are disabled with moderate or severe pain for many years. Conventional analgesics are usually not effective treatment options. In light of the fact that there are similarities between the pathophysiologic and biochemical mechanisms observed in epilepsy and in neuropathic pain, it is not surprising that antiepileptic agents can be used to treat neuropathic pain. The aim of this review was to investigate the efficacy and adverse events associated with use of sodium valproate and valproic acid for the treatment of chronic neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia. We identified three relevant studies, two in diabetic neuropathy and a third in post‐herpetic neuralgia. Two of the three studies report significantly greater reduction in pain for valproate than placebo, but studies were small (≤ 45 participants) and provided insufficient data for pooled analysis, and the methods of analysis used may have overestimated treatment effect. Adverse events such as nausea, sedation, drowsiness, vertigo, and abnormal liver function are more common with valproate than placebo, but these studies were unsuitable to allow for a comprehensive assessment of harm.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Quetiapine for acute mania in bipolar disorder

PURPOSE: The efficacy and tolerability of quetiapine in the treatment of acute mania were reviewed.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2007

Practice parameter update: management issues for women with epilepsy - focus on pregnancy (an evidence-based review): teratogenesis and perinatal outcomes. Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee and Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and American Epilepsy Society

This review concluded that valproate and anti-epileptic drug polytherapy during pregnancy first trimester should be avoided to decrease the risk of congenital malformations, and throughout pregnancy to prevent reduced cognitive outcomes; pregnancy risk stratification should incorporate risks in children of women with epilepsy taking anti-epileptic drugs. Limitations in reporting make it difficult to establish the reliability of these conclusions.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2009

Valproate in the treatment of PTSD: systematic review and meta analysis

The authors concluded that limited evidence suggested that valproate may be effective for the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder and that further research is required. There were limitations to this review, but overall the authors? conclusions reflected limited evidence from a small number of poor quality studies.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2007

Valproate for the treatment of acute bipolar depression: systematic review and meta-analysis

The authors concluded that valproate was effective for reducing depressive symptoms in acute bipolar depression and was well-tolerated. The authors? conclusions appeared to reflect the evidence, but the small number of patients in the few relatively short-term included trials should be taken into account when interpreting these conclusions.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2010

Comparative efficacy and acceptability of mood stabilizer and second generation antipsychotic monotherapy for acute mania: a systematic review and meta-analysis

The authors concluded that, compared with mood stabilisers, second-generation antipsychotics may be preferable for initial monotherapy treatment of acute mania. Minimal quality assessment of included trials and lack of patient information mean that the applicability and reliability of the authors' conclusions are unclear.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

Divalproex sodium versus placebo in the treatment of acute bipolar depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis

BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorders (BDs) are defined by mania and hypomania, but depressions occur more frequently, last longer, and lead to significant disability. Divalproex is the most frequently prescribed anticonvulsant medication for BD. While some evidence suggests that divalproex prevents depressive episodes during maintenance treatment, it is not commonly used in the treatment of acute depression, and there is a perception that there is little evidence to support its efficacy.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2010

Folic Acid Supplementation for the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects: An Update of the Evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force [Internet]

Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common birth defects in the United States.

Evidence Syntheses - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: May 2009
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Effectiveness and Safety of Antiepileptic Medications in Patients With Epilepsy [Internet]

This is an evidence report prepared by the University of Connecticut/Hartford Hospital Evidence-based Practice Center examining the comparative efficacy, safety, and tolerability of newer versus older and innovator versus generic antiepileptic medications.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: December 2011
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Bipolar Disorder: The Management of Bipolar Disorder in Adults, Children and Adolescents, in Primary and Secondary Care

This guideline has been developed to advise on the treatment and management of bipolar disorder. The guideline recommendations have been developed by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, patients and guideline methodologists after careful consideration of the best available evidence. It is intended that the guidelines will be useful to clinicians and service commissioners in providing and planning high quality care for those with bipolar disorder while also emphasising the importance of the experience of care for patients and carers.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2006
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Drug Class Review: Neuropathic Pain: Final Update 1 Report [Internet]

We compared the effectiveness and harms of anticonvulsants, tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), and the lidocaine patchin adults with neuropathic pain.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: June 2011
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Drug Class Review: Drugs for Fibromyalgia: Final Original Report [Internet]

We compared the effectiveness and harms of tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, noradrenergic and specific serotonergic reuptake inhibitor, norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor, serotonin receptor antagonist, antiepileptic drugs, and skeletal muscle relaxants in adults with fibromyalgia.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: April 2011
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Drug Class Review: Antiepileptic Drugs for Indications Other Than Epilepsy: Final Report Update 2 [Internet]

Antiepileptic drugs have been used beyond treatment of seizure disorders since the 1960s. As new antiepileptic drugs have become available, there has been interest in how they compare with older therapies (carbamazepine, phenytoin, and valproate) and each other in disorders where conventional pharmacotherapy has typically been suboptimal and limited by drug-related toxicity. The objective of this report is to evaluate the comparative effectiveness and harms of antiepileptic drugs used for bipolar disorder, fibromyalgia, migraine prophylaxis, and chronic pain.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: October 2008
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Acute Migraine Treatment in Emergency Settings [Internet]

To compare the effectiveness and safety of parenteral pharmacological interventions to treat migraine headaches in adults presenting to the emergency department (ED).

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: November 2012
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Pharmacotherapy for Adults With Alcohol-Use Disorders in Outpatient Settings [Internet]

To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy, comparative effectiveness, and harms of medications (both FDA approved and others) for adults with alcohol-use disorders, and to evaluate the evidence from primary care settings.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: May 2014
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Comparing Fibromyalgia Drugs

How do drugs for fibromyalgia compare in improving symptoms?

PubMed Clinical Q&A [Internet] - National Center for Biotechnology Information (US).

Version: June 12, 2011

Comparing Antiepileptics for Bipolar Disorder, Migraines, Fibromyalgia, and Chronic Pain

How do antiepileptics compare in treating bipolar disorder?

PubMed Clinical Q&A [Internet] - National Center for Biotechnology Information (US).

Version: October 1, 2010

Migraine in Children: Preventive Pharmacologic Treatments [Internet]

To assess the comparative effectiveness and safety of preventive pharmacologic treatments for community-dwelling children with episodic or chronic migraine.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: June 2013
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A Systematic Review of Prevention and Intervention Strategies for Populations at High Risk of Engaging in Violent Behaviour: Update 2002–8

It has been estimated that violence accounts for more than 1.6 million deaths worldwide each year and these fatal assaults represent only a fraction of all assaults that actually occur. The problem has widespread consequences for the individual and for the wider society in physical, psychological, social and economic terms. A wide range of pharmacological, psychosocial and organisational interventions have been developed with the aim of addressing the problem. This review was designed to examine the effectiveness of these interventions when they are developed in mental health and criminal justice populations.

Health Technology Assessment - NIHR Evaluation, Trials and Studies Coordinating Centre (UK).

Version: February 2012
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Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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