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This medicine is a macrolide antibiotic that treats and prevents infections, and also treats duodenal ulcers caused by H pylori.

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Results: 41 to 56 of 56

Long-term antibiotic treatment for Crohn's disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials

This well-conducted review concluded that long-term treatment with nitroimidazoles or clofazimine appeared to be effective in patients with Crohn's disease. These conclusions were supported by the data and are likely to be reliable, but poor reporting quality and the small number of studies for each comparison means that they should be interpreted with some caution.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2010

Antibiotics for whooping cough (pertussis)

Whooping cough is a highly contagious disease caused by pertussis bacteria and may lead to death, particularly in infants less than 12 months of age. Although it can be prevented by routine vaccination, it still affects many people. Thirteen trials involving 2197 participants were included in this review. We found that several antibiotic treatments were equally effective in eliminating the bacteria infecting patients, but they did not alter the clinical outcome. There was insufficient evidence to decide whether there is benefit for treating healthy contacts. Side effects were reported with antibiotics and they varied from one antibiotic to another. The result of the review should be interpreted with caution since this review is based on a limited number of trials and some of these trials involved small numbers of participants.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

The effect of second-trimester antibiotic therapy on the rate of preterm birth

The authors concluded that macrolides and clindamycin administered in the second trimester of pregnancy significantly reduce the pre-term delivery rate in high-risk women, whereas metronidazole used alone is associated with an increased pre-term delivery rate. Given the poor reporting of the review methods and failure to assess study quality or adequately address differences between the studies, these conclusions may not be reliable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2007

Antibiotics for persistent cough or wheeze following acute bronchiolitis in children

Bronchiolitis is a common lung infection, affecting children across the world. It is usually caused by a virus called RSV (respiratory syncytial virus) but other viruses can cause this too. Young children with bronchiolitis normally have a cough, fast and difficult breathing, and poor feeding. Antibiotics are not normally prescribed to children with bronchiolitis unless there is concern of a secondary bacterial infection. However, some children continue to have ongoing problems (i.e. wheeze, cough) after the acute viral infection (> 14 days); increasing the risk of burden of disease and cost to the health system. These children often re‐present for further medical care in the community (general practitioners and health providers) or in hospital (emergency departments). Antibiotics may help treat these ongoing symptoms and get rid of the bacteria in the lungs.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Interventions to treat chronic infection of the prostate gland (chronic bacterial prostatitis)

Chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) involves infection and inflammation of the prostate gland in men of all ages. It can cause problems urinating, including discomfort and pain, increased frequency and urge, or problems emptying the bladder. Bacteria infecting the prostate are the cause of CBP. These bacteria may be sexually transmitted. To cure CBP, antibiotics must be administered for extended periods of time (four weeks or longer), but a permanent cure is not always guaranteed. Other drugs may be combined with antibiotics to improve CBP symptoms. This review found that fluoroquinolones like ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, lomefloxacin, ofloxacin or prulifloxacin have equivalent effects and equivalent success rates in CBP patients. If atypical bacteria like chlamydia are suspected to cause CBP, macrolide antibiotics such as azithromycin may achieve better results compared to the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin. It must be taken into account that some of the studies that have been performed are of poor quality or have been performed on small numbers of participants. More studies are needed, focusing on new agents or on optimized doses of currently prescribed antibiotics.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Treatment with oral drugs other than steroids to reduce lung inflammation and deterioration in lung function in people with cystic fibrosis

Inflammation contributes to lung damage. In the long term this is the most common reason for early death in cystic fibrosis. In high doses, non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs, particularly ibuprofen, may work against inflammation, but in low doses there is some evidence that they may cause inflammation. The use of high doses has also raised concerns about the potential for unwanted effects, which has limited the use of these drugs in cystic fibrosis. We looked for trials comparing oral non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs to placebo, at any dose for at least two months in people with cystic fibrosis.This updated review includes twice as many participants as the original review. We found evidence showing that high‐dose non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs, most notably ibuprofen, can slow the progression of lung damage in people with cystic fibrosis, especially in younger people. There are limited long‐term safety data; however, there are enough data to recommend that non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs be temporarily stopped when patients are receiving intravenous aminoglycosides or other agents toxic to the kidneys.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Atopic Eczema in Children: Management of Atopic Eczema in Children from Birth up to the Age of 12 Years

Atopic eczema (atopic dermatitis) is a chronic inflammatory itchy skin condition that develops in early childhood in the majority of cases. It is typically an episodic disease of exacerbation (flares, which may occur as frequently as two or three per month) and remissions, except for severe cases where it may be continuous. Certain patterns of atopic eczema are recognised. In infants, atopic eczema usually involves the face and extensor surfaces of the limbs and, while it may involve the trunk, the napkin area is usually spared. A few infants may exhibit a discoid pattern (circular patches). In older children flexural involvement predominates, as in adults. Diagnostic criteria are discussed in Chapter 3. As with other atopic conditions, such as asthma and allergic rhinitis (hay fever), atopic eczema often has a genetic component. In atopic eczema, inherited factors affect the development of the skin barrier, which can lead to exacerbation of the disease by a large number of trigger factors, including irritants and allergens. Many cases of atopic eczema clear or improve during childhood while others persist into adulthood, and some children who have atopic eczema `will go on to develop asthma and/or allergic rhinitis; this sequence of events is sometimes referred to as the ‘atopic march’. The epidemiology of atopic eczema is considered in Chapter 5, and the impact of the condition on children and their families/caregivers is considered in Sections 4.2 and 4.3.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: December 2007
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Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of plasma cell neoplasms (including multiple myeloma).

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: June 24, 2014

Bacterial Meningitis and Meningococcal Septicaemia: Management of Bacterial Meningitis and Meningococcal Septicaemia in Children and Young People Younger than 16 Years in Primary and Secondary Care

This guideline covers bacterial meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia, focusing on management of these conditions in children and young people aged younger than 16 years in primary and secondary care, and using evidence of direct relevance to these age groups where available.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: 2010
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Surgical Site Infection: Prevention and Treatment of Surgical Site Infection

Infections that occur in the wound created by an invasive surgical procedure are generally referred to as surgical site infections (SSIs). SSIs are one of the most important causes of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). A prevalence survey undertaken in 2006 suggested that approximately 8% of patients in hospital in the UK have an HCAI. SSIs accounted for 14% of these infections and nearly 5% of patients who had undergone a surgical procedure were found to have developed an SSI. However, prevalence studies tend to underestimate SSI because many of these infections occur after the patient has been discharged from hospital.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: October 2008
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Infection: Prevention and Control of Healthcare-Associated Infections in Primary and Community Care: Partial Update of NICE Clinical Guideline 2

Since the publication of the NICE clinical guideline on the prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) in primary and community care in 2003, many changes have occurred within the NHS that place the patient firmly at the centre of all activities. First, the NHS Constitution for England defines the rights and pledges that every patient can expect regarding their care. To support this, the Care Quality Commission (CQC), the independent regulator of all health and adult social care in England, ensures that health and social care is safe, and monitors how providers comply with established standards. In addition, the legal framework that underpins the guidance has changed since 2003.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).

Version: March 2012
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Drug Class Review: Long-Acting Opioid Analgesics: Final Update 6 Report [Internet]

We compared the effectiveness and harms of long-acting opioids and of long-acting opioids compared with short-acting opioids in adults with chronic noncancer pain.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: July 2011
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Safety of Probiotics to Reduce Risk and Prevent or Treat Disease

To catalog what is known about the safety of interventions containing Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Saccharomyces, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and/or Bacillus strains used as probiotic agents in research to reduce the risk of, prevent, or treat disease.

Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: April 2011
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Closing the Quality Gap: A Critical Analysis of Quality Improvement Strategies (Vol. 4: Antibiotic Prescribing Behavior)

Unnecessary prescribing of antibiotics is a major problem in the US and worldwide, contributing to the problem of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). This review examines the effects of quality improvement strategies on reducing inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics, targeting both prescribing of antibiotics for non-bacterial illnesses (“the antibiotic treatment decision”) and prescribing of broad-spectrum antibiotics when narrow-spectrum agents are indicated (“the antibiotic selection decision”).

Technical Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: January 2006
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Respiratory Tract Infections - Antibiotic Prescribing: Prescribing of Antibiotics for Self-Limiting Respiratory Tract Infections in Adults and Children in Primary Care

Respiratory tract infection (RTI) is defined as any infectious disease of the upper or lower respiratory tract. Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) include the common cold, laryngitis, pharyngitis/tonsillitis, acute rhinitis, acute rhinosinusitis and acute otitis media. Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) include acute bronchitis, bronchiolitis, pneumonia and tracheitis. Antibiotics are commonly prescribed for RTIs in adults and children in primary care. General practice consultation rates in England and Wales show that a quarter of the population will visit their GP because of an RTI each year (Ashworth et al. 2005). RTIs are the reason for 60% of all antibiotic prescribing in general practice, and this constitutes a significant cost to the NHS. Annual prescribing costs for acute cough alone exceed £15 million (Lindbaek 2006).

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (UK).

Version: July 2008
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Drug Class Review: Controller Medications for Asthma: Final Update 1 Report [Internet]

To compare the efficacy and safety of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs), long-acting beta-2 agonists (LABAs), leukotriene modifiers (LMs), anti-IgE therapy, combination products, and tiotropium for people with persistent asthma.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: April 2011
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Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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