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About - Bacitracin

Injection: Treats a bacterial infection. This medicine is an antibiotic.

Into the eye: Treats infections of your eyelid or cornea (surface of your eye).

On the skin: Prevents infection of minor cuts, burns, or scrapes.

UsesSide effectsLatest evidence reviewsResearch summaries for consumersBrand names

Results: 10

Antibiotic therapy for Clostridium difficile‐associated diarrhea in adults

Diarrhea may be a side effect of many commonly used antibiotics, and in some cases may be due to overgrowth of a bacterium called Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) in the colon after other bacteria have been killed. The seriousness of C. difficile‐associated diarrhea (CDAD) can range from being a nuisance, to a life threatening or even fatal disease. The treatment of CDAD is usually cessation of the initiating antibiotic and immediate administration of a different antibiotic. However each of these steps, cessation of the original antibiotic, immediate retreatment, and the choice of a new antibiotic are poorly supported by currently available evidence. Fifteen studies (total 1152 participants) of antibiotic treatment of CDAD were included in this review. Nine different antibiotics were investigated: vancomycin, metronidazole, fusidic acid, nitazoxanide, teicoplanin, rifampin, rifaximin, bacitracin and fidaxomicin (OPT‐80). Most of the studies were compared vancomycin with other antibiotics. Vancomycin was found to be superior to placebo (fake medicine) for improvement of the symptoms of CDAD including resolution of diarrhea. Most of the studies found no statistically significant difference in effectiveness between vancomycin and other antibiotics including metronidazole, fusidic acid, nitazoxanide or rifaximin. Teicoplanin was found to be superior to vancomycin for curing the C. difficile infection. Teicoplanin may be an attractive choice for the treatment of CDAD. However, it is expensive compared to the other antibiotics and is of limited availability. Side effects including surgery and death occurred infrequently in the included studies. There was a total of 18 deaths among 1152 patients in this systematic review. These deaths were attributed to underlying disease rather than CDAD or antibiotic treatment. One study reported a partial colectomy (removal of the diseased part of the colon) after failed CDAD treatment. It is questionable whether mild CDAD needs to be treated. The included studies provide little evidence for antibiotic treatment of severe CDAD as many studies attempted to exclude these patients. Considering the goals of CDAD therapy: improvement of the patient's clinical condition and prevention of spread of C. difficile infection to other patients, one should choose the antibiotic that brings both symptomatic cure and bacteriologic cure. A recommendation to achieve these goals cannot be made because of the small numbers of patients in the included studies and the poor methodological quality of these studies. Over time there have been emerging therapies for the treatment of clostridium difficile such as resins, new biological compounds and probiotics as alternatives to antibiotics. These interventions along with antibiotic therapy for Clostridium difficile‐associated diarrhea need further investigation. 

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Clostridium difficile Infections: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

A systematic review of 102 clinical studies published from December 1978 to August 2011 examined the comparative effectiveness of diagnostic tests, treatments, and prevention strategies for Clostridium difficile infections (CDIs) in adults. The review did not include an evaluation of other causes of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. This summary is provided to inform discussions of options with patients and to assist in decisionmaking along with consideration of a patient's values and preferences. However, reviews of evidence should not be construed to represent clinical recommendations or guidelines. The full report is available at www.effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/cdiff.cfm.

Comparative Effectiveness Review Summary Guides for Clinicians [Internet] - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: December 19, 2011

Vancomycin or Metronidazole for Treatment of Clostridium difficile Infection: Clinical and Economic Analyses [Internet]

Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection is the most common cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea in adults. The spread of a hypervirulent strain of C. difficile has caused recent outbreaks of C. difficile infection. Metronidazole and vancomycin are the antibiotics of choice to treat C. difficile infection. An assessment was prepared to help guide the choice of therapy for C. difficile infection and to inform reimbursement policies in the Canadian publicly funded health care system.

CADTH Technology Report - Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health.

Version: January 2011
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Effectiveness of Early Diagnosis, Prevention, and Treatment of Clostridium difficile Infection [Internet]

To conduct a systematic review and synthesize evidence for differences in the accuracy of diagnostic tests, and the effects of interventions to prevent and treat Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in adult patients.

Comparative Effectiveness Reviews - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: December 2011
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Surgical Site Infection: Prevention and Treatment of Surgical Site Infection

Infections that occur in the wound created by an invasive surgical procedure are generally referred to as surgical site infections (SSIs). SSIs are one of the most important causes of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs). A prevalence survey undertaken in 2006 suggested that approximately 8% of patients in hospital in the UK have an HCAI. SSIs accounted for 14% of these infections and nearly 5% of patients who had undergone a surgical procedure were found to have developed an SSI. However, prevalence studies tend to underestimate SSI because many of these infections occur after the patient has been discharged from hospital.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: October 2008
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Oral rifampin for prevention of S. aureus carriage-related infections in patients with renal failure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

BACKGROUND: Rifampin has been studied as prophylaxis against Staphylococcus aureus-related infections in patients on dialysis.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2006

Oral rifampin for eradication of Staphylococcus aureus carriage from healthy and sick populations: a systematic review of the evidence from comparative trials

BACKGROUND: Rifampin has been used for the eradication of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonization in various populations of healthy and sick people.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2007

Comparative effectiveness of Clostridium difficile treatments: a systematic review

This review compared the effectiveness and harms of antibiotic treatments in adult patients with Clostridium difficile infection. The authors concluded that no antimicrobial agent was clearly superior for initial cure and recurrence was less frequent with fidaxomicin than vancomycin. The suboptimal quality of studies, small sample sizes and variable study characteristics suggest that the cautious conclusion is justified.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

Eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage: a systematic review

This review found short-term nasal application of mupirocin was the most effective treatment for the eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage. While the authors' conclusion reflected the evidence presented, the results should be treated with some degree of caution given a number of shortcomings, unexplained heterogeneity in the oral antibiotics trials, and the limited evidence directly comparing different treatments.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2009

Antibiotics and antiseptics to prevent infection in cardiac rhythm management device implantation surgery

This review concluded that perioperative intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis, within one hour before cardiac electronic device implantation, effectively reduced surgical site infections. Compared to perioperative use, postoperative antibiotics resulted in statistically significantly higher infection rates. As data came from studies of poor or questionable quality, and limited data was available for individual comparisons, conclusions should be treated with caution.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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