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About - Azathioprine

By mouth: Prevents your body from rejecting an organ after a transplant. Also treats rheumatoid arthritis.

Injection: Prevents rejection of a kidney after a transplant by suppressing the immune system. Also treats rheumatoid arthritis.

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Results: 21 to 40 of 157

Treatments for bullous pemphigoid

Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is the most common autoimmune blistering disease in the West. Incidence figures are not available for most parts of the world but BP appears to be rarer in the Far East. Bullous pemphigoid is usually a disease of the elderly but it can also affect younger people and children. Both sexes are similarly affected. While BP usually resolves within five years, there is a moderate death rate associated with the disease and its treatment. Oral corticosteroid drugs are the most common treatment, but may be associated with serious adverse effects, including some deaths. The most common adverse effects of oral steroids, include weight gain and high blood pressure. Long‐term use is associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus and decreased bone density. Topical steroids are also associated with adverse effects, such as thinning of the skin and easy bruising. The risk of experiencing adverse effects of topical steroids depends on the strength of the steroid, how long it is used for, which area of the body it is applied to, and the kind of skin problem; if a high‐strength, potent steroid is used, enough may be absorbed through the skin to cause adverse effects in the rest of the body.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Off-label use of azathioprine in dermatology: a systematic review

OBJECTIVE: To summarize evidence regarding the effectiveness, efficacy, and safety of off-label azathioprine use in dermatology.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

Relapse rate following azathioprine withdrawal in maintaining remission for Crohn's disease: a meta-analysis

BACKGROUND: The duration of use of azathioprine (Aza) and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) for maintaining remission for Crohn's disease is debatable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

Methotrexate for treatment of active treatment resistant Crohn's disease

Although corticosteroids are effective for induction of remission of Crohn's disease, many patients relapse when steroids are withdrawn or become steroid dependent. Furthermore, corticosteroids exhibit significant side effects. Methotrexate is an immunosuppressive drug that is used to treat active treatment resistant Crohn's disease. This review includes seven randomized trials with a total of 495 participants. There is evidence from one large study which suggests that methotrexate (25 mg/week) injected intramuscularly for 16 weeks among patients with active treatment resistant Crohn's disease may provide a benefit for induction of remission and complete withdrawal from steroids. This reduction in steroid use could reduce steroid‐induced side effects for people with chronic Crohn's disease. Although side effects are more common with high dose methotrexate therapy, no serious side effects have been observed. Common side effects associated with methotrexate therapy include nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, skin rash and headache. Studies comparing lower dose oral methotrexate (12.5 to 15 mg/week) to placebo (e.g. sugar pill) or other active drugs (e.g. azathioprine or 6‐mercaptopurine) indicate that lower dose oral methotrexate does not appear to provide any benefit for treatment of active treatment resistant Crohn's disease. However, these trials were small in size and further studies of oral methotrexate may be justified. Two studies looked at the combination of methotrexate and infliximab (a biological drug) compared to infliximab therapy alone. These studies indicated that the addition of methotrexate to infliximab therapy does not appear to provide any additional benefit over infiximab. However these studies were relatively small and further research is needed to determine the role of methotrexate when used in conjunction with infliximab or other biological therapies.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Assessment of thiopurine methyltransferase activity in patients prescribed azathioprine or other thiopurine-based drugs

OBJECTIVES: To examine whether pretreatment determination of thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) enzymatic activity (phenotyping) or TPMT genotype, to guide thiopurine therapy in chronic autoimmune disease patients, reduces treatment harms. Other objectives included assessing: preanalytic, analytic, and postanalytic requirements for TPMT testing; diagnostic accuracy of TPMT genotyping versus phenotyping; association of thiopurine toxicity with TPMT genotypic or phenotypic status; and costs of testing, care, and treating drug-associated complications.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2010

Maintenance therapy of lupus nephritis with micophenolate or azathioprine: systematic review and meta-analysis

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to summarize the comparative efficacy and safety of MMF and AZA as maintenance therapy for LN.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Mycophenolate mofetil versus azathioprine as maintenance therapy for lupus nephritis: a meta-analysis

AIM: The options for long-term maintenance therapy in lupus nephritis (LN) remain controversial. This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessed the prognosis and safety of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) versus azathioprine (AZA) used as maintenance therapy for lupus nephritis.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

A trial of mercaptopurine is a safe strategy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease intolerant to azathioprine: an observational study, systematic review and meta-analysis

BACKGROUND: Thiopurines maintain remission and modify disease course in inflammatory bowel disease. Use is limited by intolerance and subsequent drug withdrawal in approximately 17% of patients treated with azathioprine. Previous case series have addressed the success rates of re-treatment with mercaptopurine in these individuals.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2013

Risk of lymphoma in patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated with azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine: a meta-analysis

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Thiopurine therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been associated with increased risk for lymphoma. We estimated the relative risk of lymphoma in patients with IBD exposed to thiopurines and compared relative risk values derived from population-based studies with those from referral center-based studies. We investigated whether active use increased risk compared with past use, and whether sex, age, or duration of use affects risk of lymphoma.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness of azathioprine in patients with ulcerative colitis

This reasonably well-conducted review examined the effectiveness and safety of azathioprine for induction and maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis patients. The authors concluded that azathioprine may be effective in maintaining remission, but there is insufficient evidence that it is effective in inducing remission and further research is needed. These conclusions are likely to be reliable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2004

Azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine for the prevention of postoperative recurrence in Crohn's disease: a meta-analysis

This review concluded that purine analogues were more effective than placebo in preventing clinical and endoscopic postoperative recurrence in Crohn's disease patients, but were associated with a higher rate of adverse events leading to drug withdrawal. Despite some shortcomings, this was generally a well-conducted review and the authors' conclusions appear reliable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2009

Increased risk of lymphoma among inflammatory bowel disease patients treated with azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine

This review found that individuals with inflammatory bowel disease treated with azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine have four times the risk of developing lymphoma compared with the general population. These results were based on observational studies, with few observed lymphoma cases, thus the true effect of immunomodulator treatment is uncertain.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2005

Mycophenolate mofetil decreases acute rejection and may improve graft survival in renal transplant recipients when compared with azathioprine: a systematic review

This review concluded that mycophenolate mofetil used with a calcineurin inhibitor conferred a clinical benefit over azathioprine by reducing the risk of acute rejections and possibly reducing graft loss in patients receiving kidney transplants. This was a well-conducted review, but these conclusions should be treated cautiously given the poor quality of most of the evidence.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2009

Meta-analysis: the efficacy of azathioprine and mercaptopurine in ulcerative colitis

The review concluded that azathioprine/mercaptopurine were effective for prevention of relapse in ulcerative colitis compared to placebo. The authors' conclusions appeared appropriate. However, quality assessment and meta-analyses were restricted to RCTs and so it was not possible to assess the reliability of overall findings.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2009

Exposing the weaknesses: a systematic review of azathioprine efficacy in ulcerative colitis

The authors concluded that azathioprine showed a modest efficacy in the treatment of ulcerative colitis, but the quality of evidence was not high. This was a generally well-conducted study, but the lack of available high-quality studies and the small number of participants meant that the reliability of the authors' conclusions was unclear.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2008

Meta-analysis of basiliximab for immunoprophylaxis in renal transplantation

BACKGROUND: Basiliximab is a high-affinity chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against the alpha-chain of the interleukin (IL)-2 receptor. Individual studies have shown that it is highly effective in preventing acute rejection and causes no measurable incremental toxicity. However, incorporation of basiliximab immunoprophylaxis into routine practice depends upon the demonstration of benefit across treatment regimens and quantitation of the treatment effect.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2003

Cyclosporine in the treatment of severe attack of ulcerative colitis: a systematic review

INTRODUCTION: Intravenous steroid therapy is the standard treatment in severe attacks of ulcerative colitis (UC), but 20% to 60% of patients fail to respond and require colectomy. Cyclosporine (CyA) has shown efficacy in steroid failures and could avoid surgery, but controversy remains.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2005

Mycophenolate mofetil in induction and maintenance therapy of severe lupus nephritis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

BACKGROUND: The outcomes of previous trials of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in treating severe lupus nephritis (LN) are not in exact agreement. This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assesses the benefits and harms of MMF in the induction and maintenance therapy of severe LN.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2007

Efficacy of immunosuppressive therapy for inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

OBJECTIVES: There remains controversy regarding the efficacy of thiopurine analogs (azathioprine (AZA) and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP)), methotrexate (MTX), and cyclosporine for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We performed an updated systematic review of the literature to clarify the efficacy of immunosuppressive therapy at inducing remission and preventing relapse in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD).

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

Immunosuppressive therapy in acute myocarditis: an 18 year systematic review

This review looked for evidence of the effects of immunosuppressive therapy for treating acute myocarditis in children. However, only a few small studies were found. The authors' conclusions on the paucity of the evidence and the need for a multicentre trial appear justified.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2004

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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