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Absorbed through the skin: Helps you quit smoking.

By breathing: Helps you quit smoking.

Into the nose: Helps you quit smoking.

Into the mouth: Helps you quit smoking.

Transdermal route: Nicotine skin patches are used to help you stop smoking.

UsesSide effectsLatest evidence reviewsResearch summaries for consumersBrand names

Results: 21 to 40 of 244

Can people be helped to stop smoking before they have surgery?

Smoking is a well‐known risk factor for complications after surgery. Stopping smoking before surgery is likely to reduce the risk of complications. We reviewed the evidence about the effects of providing smoking cessation interventions to people awaiting surgery on their success in quitting at the time of surgery and longer‐term, and at complications following surgery. The evidence is current to January 2014.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Do printed self‐help materials containing information about how to give up smoking help people to quit

We reviewed the evidence that printed materials giving structured advice about how to stop smoking help people to quit. We looked for trials of any type of printed self‐help material which gave structured support and advice about quitting. We also included materials in audio or video format but we did not include internet programmes or other formats. Trials had to include people who smoked, but they did not need to be currently trying to give up. We were interested in the number of people who were not smoking at least 6 months from the time when materials were provided. Some trials mailed materials on more than one occasion. Some trials gathered information about smoking history and habits in order to provide materials which were individually tailored to the characteristics of the smoker (tailored materials). In some trials, there was no face‐to‐face contact, and the materials were the only support. Other trials gave everyone advice and were designed to test whether there was any additional benefit from providing written materials.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

An updated meta-analysis of nicotine preloading for smoking cessation: investigating mediators of the effect

RATIONALE: Using nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) whilst smoking, prior to quitting, is called preloading. Two reviews have estimated the effect of preloading on abstinence, but need updating. Neither investigated possible mediators or moderators of the effect, which could have implications for individual treatment plans.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

Interventions for preventing weight gain after smoking cessation

When giving up smoking, most people put on weight. Many smokers are concerned about this and say it may put them off making an attempt quit. Some studies show that weight gain also leads to people resuming smoking after an initially successful quit attempt. On the other hand, there are good reasons to believe that trying to limit weight gain may reduce the chance of stopping smoking. Several drug and behavioural programmes to limit post cessation weight gain have been tested. Of the drug treatments, naltrexone showed the most promise, but there were no data on its effects on weight once drug treatment stopped and there was not enough evidence to judge its effects on long term quitting. Weight management education alone did not limit weight gain and may undermine cessation. Weight management education with personalised support giving feedback on personal goals and a personal energy prescription limited weight gain and there was no evidence that it undermined cessation. Intermittent use of a VLCD improved cessation success and weight gain in the short term but not in the longer term.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Nicotine replacement therapy for long-term smoking cessation: a meta-analysis

OBJECTIVE: To assess if the effect of a single treatment episode with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) enhances smoking cessation over many years.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2006

Effectiveness of over-the-counter nicotine replacement therapy: a qualitative review of nonrandomized trials

AIM: Randomized trials conducted in over-the-counter (OTC) settings have shown that nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is effective. This paper reviews nonrandomized tests of the effectiveness of OTC NRT.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

Can quitting smoking before surgery prevent complications?

Quitting smoking one or two months before planned surgery can significantly lower the risk of complications like poor wound healing. Counseling combined with nicotine replacement therapy can help you quit smoking.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: May 21, 2014

Electronic nicotine delivery systems ("e-cigarettes"): review of safety and smoking cessation efficacy

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cigarette smoking is common among cancer patients and is associated with negative outcomes. Electronic nicotine delivery systems ("e-cigarettes") are rapidly growing in popularity and use, but there is limited information on their safety or effectiveness in helping individuals quit smoking.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Comparisons of high-dose and combination nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline, and bupropion for smoking cessation: a systematic review and multiple treatment meta-analysis

AIM: This review compared the effect of high-dose nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and combinations of NRT for increasing smoking abstinence rates compared to standard-dose NRT patch, varenicline, and bupropion on smoking abstinence.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2012

Nicotine for postoperative analgesia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

BACKGROUND: The perioperative adminstration of nicotine has been investigated as an analgesic adjunct and a possible modality to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). We performed this systematic review to assess the impact of perioperative administration of nicotine on postoperative pain and PONV.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2014

Using nicotine replacement therapy to assist in reducing cigarette consumption before quitting: another strategy for smoking cessation?

This review, which assessed the efficacy of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in reducing cigarette consumption in smokers before quitting, concluded that NRT is effective and can lead to long-term cessation, which should remain the ultimate goal. Given several limitations of the review (such as potential reviewer bias), and the limited study details and data synthesis, the authors' conclusions may not be reliable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2006

Nicotine patch therapy prior to quitting smoking: a meta-analysis

This review compared the effectiveness of starting nicotine patch treatment prior to quitting smoking against starting patch treatment on the target quit day. The authors, and concluded that pre-quit nicotine patches roughly double the odds of quitting. Given the limited reporting of methods and lack of quality assessment of included studies, the conclusions should be interpreted with some caution.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2008

Meta-analysis of studies investigating one-year effectiveness of transdermal nicotine patches for smoking cessation

This review evaluated the effectiveness of transdermal nicotine patches, compared to placebo patches, in terms of smoking abstinence over one year The authors reported odds ratios of around 1.8, regardless of whether the endpoint was point-prevalence abstinence, continuous or sustained abstinence, or both. These conclusions appear appropriate given the evidence presented, but some relevant evidence was excluded.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2007

A meta-analysis of the efficacy of over-the-counter nicotine replacement

The review compared over-the-counter (OTC) nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) with placebo and with prescription NRT. The authors concluded that OTC was efficacious and resulted in modest quit rates that were similar to those of prescription NRT. The review has some methodological weaknesses, and it is unclear whether the results of the included studies and the synthesis of them can be relied upon.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2003

Are there sex differences in transdermal nicotine replacement therapy patch efficacy: a meta-analysis

This review found that there are no significant differences in the efficacy of nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation in men and women. The review was based on a Cochrane review, but was limited by the inclusion of only 35% of the eligible trials for which gender-specific data were available; this severely weakens the reliability of the findings.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2004

Meta-analysis study for one year effects of a nicotine patch

The review evaluated the long-term efficacy of the nicotine patch in smoking cessation and found that nicotine patches significantly increased the success rate for smoking cessation after one year. Lack of reporting of review methods and assessment of trial quality, in addition to evidence for possible publication bias, makes the reliability of the authors’ conclusion unclear.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2009

Efficacy and safety of nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation in pregnancy: systematic review and meta-analysis

The authors concluded that there was insufficient evidence to determine whether or not nicotine replacement therapy was effective and safe when used in pregnancy for smoking cessation. The conclusions reflect the evidence presented and are likely to be reliable, but should be viewed with caution given the potential for publication bias.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2011

Psychometric properties of the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence

This review assessed the psychometric properties of the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence. Review methods and presentation of data were weak. The conclusion that more research is needed to justify extensive use of this test is reasonable. However, the conclusion that the test is reliable in different settings and populations cannot be justified by the data.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2009

'Cut down to quit' with nicotine replacement therapies in smoking cessation: a systematic review of effectiveness and economic analysis

This review evaluated the effectiveness of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in achieving smoking abstinence for smokers unwilling or unable to quit abruptly. The authors concluded that NRT was an effective intervention in achieving smoking abstinence for smokers who were unwilling or unable to attempt an abrupt quit. The authors' conclusions reflected the evidence presented and were likely to be reliable.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2008

Adverse events associated with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for smoking cessation: a systematic review and meta-analysis of one hundred and twenty studies involving 177,390 individuals

The authors concluded that nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation was associated with various side-effects and, in addition to counselling and medical monitoring, clinicians should inform patients of potential side effects. Problems differentiating adverse events due to smoking cessation from those associated with nicotine replacement therapy treatment mean the authors' conclusion should be interpreted with caution.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2010

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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