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About - Dantrolene

By mouth: Treats muscle spasms. Also used to treat and prevent malignant hyperthermia.

Injection: Treats or prevents malignant hyperthermia.

UsesSide effectsLatest evidence reviewsResearch summaries for consumersBrand names

Results: 16

Dantrolene in the treatment of MDMA-related hyperpyrexia: a systematic review

OBJECTIVE: The use of dantrolene in the treatment of hyperpyrexia related to MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is controversial, with little data available to guide clinical decision-making. Although the treatment is recommended by several poison control centres, published data are primarily in the form of case reports and animal and in vitro experiments. We conducted a systematic review to investigate the published evidence regarding the safety and benefits of dantrolene for MDMA-related hyperpyrexia in humans.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2010

Comparing Muscle Relaxants

How do muscle relaxants compare in treating spasticity caused by a neurological disorder?

PubMed Clinical Q&A [Internet] - National Center for Biotechnology Information (US).

Version: December 1, 2007

Spasticity in Children and Young People with Non-Progressive Brain Disorders: Management of Spasticity and Co-Existing Motor Disorders and Their Early Musculoskeletal Complications

This guideline covers the management of spasticity and co-existing motor disorders and their early musculoskeletal complications in children and young people (from birth up to their 19th birthday) with non-progressive brain disorders.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).

Version: July 2012
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Drug Class Review: Skeletal Muscle Relaxants: Final Report [Internet]

Skeletal muscle relaxants are a heterogeneous group of medications commonly used to treat two different types of underlying conditions: spasticity from upper motor neuron syndromes and muscular pain or spasms from peripheral musculoskeletal conditions. The purpose of this report is to determine whether there is evidence that one or more skeletal muscle relaxant is superior to others in terms of efficacy or safety.

Drug Class Reviews - Oregon Health & Science University.

Version: May 2005
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Comparative efficacy and safety of skeletal muscle relaxants for spasticity and musculoskeletal conditions: a systematic review

Skeletal muscle relaxants are a heterogeneous group of medications used to treat two different types of underlying conditions: spasticity from upper motor neuron syndromes and muscular pain or spasms from peripheral musculoskeletal conditions. Although widely used for these indications, there appear to be gaps in our understanding of the comparative efficacy and safety of different skeletal muscle relaxants. This systematic review summarizes and assesses the evidence for the comparative efficacy and safety of skeletal muscle relaxants for spasticity and musculoskeletal conditions. Randomized trials (for comparative efficacy and adverse events) and observational studies (for adverse events only) that included oral medications classified as skeletal muscle relaxants by the FDA were sought using electronic databases, reference lists, and pharmaceutical company submissions. Searches were performed through January 2003. The validity of each included study was assessed using a data abstraction form and predefined criteria. An overall grade was allocated for the body of evidence for each key question. A total of 101 randomized trials were included in this review. No randomized trial was rated good quality, and there was little evidence of rigorous adverse event assessment in included trials or observational studies. There is fair evidence that baclofen, tizanidine, and dantrolene are effective compared to placebo in patients with spasticity (primarily multiple sclerosis). There is fair evidence that baclofen and tizanidine are roughly equivalent for efficacy in patients with spasticity, but insufficient evidence to determine the efficacy of dantrolene compared to baclofen or tizanidine. There is fair evidence that although the overall rate of adverse effects between tizanidine and baclofen is similar, tizanidine is associated with more dry mouth and baclofen with more weakness. There is fair evidence that cyclobenzaprine, carisoprodol, orphenadrine, and tizanidine are effective compared to placebo in patients with musculoskeletal conditions (primarily acute back or neck pain). Cyclobenzaprine has been evaluated in the most clinical trials and has consistently been found to be effective. There is very limited or inconsistent data regarding the effectiveness of metaxalone, methocarbamol, chlorzoxazone, baclofen, or dantrolene compared to placebo in patients with musculoskeletal conditions. There is insufficient evidence to determine the relative efficacy or safety of cyclobenzaprine, carisoprodol, orphenadrine, tizanidine, metaxalone, methocarbamol, and chlorzoxazone. Dantrolene, and to a lesser degree chlorzoxazone, have been associated with rare serious hepatotoxicity.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2004

Cooling methods used in the treatment of exertional heat illness

OBJECTIVE: To review the different methods of reducing body core temperature in patients with exertional heatstroke.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2005

Drug and nutritional treatment for McArdle disease

We reviewed the evidence about the effects of drug and nutritional treatment for McArdle disease.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Oral antispastic drugs in nonprogressive neurologic diseases: a systematic review

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of oral drugs in the treatment of spasticity in patients with nonprogressive neurologic disease (NPND).

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2004

Treatments for spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the commonest neurological conditions of young adults in the Western world, with an estimated 58,000-63,000 people with the disease in England and Wales. Pain and spasticity are two of the commonest symptoms from which people with MS suffer. A recent survey of members by the MS Society found that 54% reported pain as a current symptom and 74% spasticity. The importance of these symptoms is not simply because of their frequency, but also because of the impact they have on daily life. As the disease progresses, so does the spasticity, resulting in muscle spasms, immobility, disturbed sleep and pain. Disability resulting from spasticity can lead to patients requiring extensive nursing care.

NIHR Health Technology Assessment programme: Executive Summaries - NIHR Journals Library.

Version: 2003

Muscle relaxants for pain management in rheumatoid arthritis

This summary of a Cochrane review presents what we know from research about the effect of muscle relaxants on pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

The effect of anti‐spasticity agents in people with multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the nervous system which affects young and middle‐aged adults. Spasticity, a common problem in people with MS, is a disorder of voluntary movement caused by damage to the central nervous system. The main sign is the resistance to passive movement of a limb but other associated features ‐ pain, spasms, loss of function ‐ affect people's quality of life more directly.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Not enough evidence about the effects of drugs used to try and reduce spasticity in the limbs after spinal cord injury

A major problem after spinal cord injury is muscle resistance to having the arms or legs moved (spasticity). There can also be spasms. This can severely limit a person's mobility and independence, and can cause pain, muscle problems, and sleep difficulties. Treatments to try and reduce spasticity include exercise, and drugs to try and decrease the muscle tone. The review found there was not enough evidence from trials to assess the effects of the range of drugs used to try and relieve spasticity after spinal cord injury. The authors of the review call for more research and make recommendations as to how this research should be conducted.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Contemporary pharmacologic treatments for spasticity of the upper limb after stroke: a systematic review

The review concluded that botulinum toxin appeared to be an effective and well-tolerated focal treatment for reducing tonicity in patients with upper limb spasticity after stroke and the results supported guideline recommendations. Small sample sizes in some trials, potential clinical heterogeneity across studies and some methodological problems with the review mean that caution is warranted when interpreting the authors? conclusions.

Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews [Internet] - Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK).

Version: 2010

Treatment for cramps in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease

A cramp is a sudden, involuntary painful contraction of a muscle. Many people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neuron disease (MND), experience cramps during the course of the disease. These range from mild cramps that do not affect daily activities and sleep, through to very severe, painful cramps. Some medications that are used to treat cramps in people with no medical condition or with conditions other than ALS have been tested in ALS clinical trials. These medicines include vitamin E, creatine, quinidine, and gabapentin. Other medications such as quinine sulfate, magnesium, lioresal, dantrolene, clonazepam, diphenylhydantoin, and gabapentin have been used to treat cramps in people with ALS but their effectiveness is unknown. In 2006 and 2010 the US Food and Drugs Administration issued warnings concerning the use of quinine sulfate, which was the previously most widely prescribed medication for cramps in the US. This review sought to find out how effective medications and physical treatments for cramps are for people with ALS. The reviewers identified 20 randomised controlled trials in people with ALS comprising a total of 4789 participants. Only one trial, of the drug tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), directly investigated the effectiveness of an intervention for cramps. Thirteen randomised controlled ALS trials investigated cramps secondarily among other variables. The medications comprised vitamin E, baclofen, riluzole, L‐threonine, xaliproden, indinavir, and memantine. Six randomised controlled ALS trials investigated cramps as adverse events. The medications comprised creatine, gabapentin, dextromethorphan, quinidine and lithium. None of the 20 studies could demonstrate any benefit, but the studies were small. Current evidence on the treatment of cramps in ALS is lacking and more research is needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Last Days of Life (PDQ®): Health Professional Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about care during the last days to last hours of life, including common symptoms, ethical dilemmas that may arise, and the role of the oncologist in caring for patients and their families during this time.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: July 16, 2014

Depression in Adults with a Chronic Physical Health Problem: Treatment and Management

This clinical guideline was commissioned by NICE and developed by the National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health. It sets out clear, evidenceand consensus-based recommendations for healthcare staff on how to treat and manage depression in adults with a chronic physical health problem.

NICE Clinical Guidelines - National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).

Version: 2010
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