Home > Health A – Z > Proctitis

Proctitis

Inflammation of the mucous membrane that lines the rectum (the last several inches of the large intestine closest to the anus).

PubMed Health Glossary
(Source: NIH - National Cancer Institute)

About Proctitis

Proctitis is inflammation of the lining of the rectum, the lower end of the large intestine leading to the anus. The large intestine and anus are part of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The GI tract is a series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus. The movement of muscles in the GI tract, along with the release of hormones and enzymes, allows for the digestion of food. With proctitis, inflammation of the rectal lining—called the rectal mucosa—is uncomfortable and sometimes painful. The condition may lead to bleeding or mucous discharge from the rectum, among other symptoms.

What causes proctitis?

Proctitis has many causes, including acute, or sudden and short-term, and chronic, or long-lasting, conditions....Read more about Proctitis NIH - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

What works? Research summarized

Evidence reviews

Effects of topical administration of budesonide and traditional glucocorticosteroids on active distal ulcerative colitis or proctitis

Bibliographic details: Huang M-L, Ran Z-H, Tong J-L, Lu L-H, Xiao S-D.  Effects of topical administration of budesonide and traditional glucocorticosteroids on active distal ulcerative colitis or proctitis. World Chinese Journal of Digestology 2008; 16(3): 326-331

Non‐surgical interventions for late rectal consequences of radiotherapy in people who have received radical radiotherapy to the pelvis

Radiotherapy is often used to treat cancer in the pelvic area. Several organs in the pelvis, such as the anus, rectum, bladder, prostate, gynaecological organs (womb, ovaries, cervix, and vagina), small bowel, and pelvic bones may be exposed to the effects of radiotherapy, which can lead to pelvic radiation disease. Symptoms from pelvic radiation disease may occur around the time of treatment (early effects) or over a period of time, often many years after treatment (late effects) due to long‐term changes secondary to scarring (fibrosis), narrowing (stenosis), and bleeding due to new blood vessel formation (telangiectasia). Damage to the rectum (radiation proctopathy) is the most often investigated late radiation effect to the pelvis, which affects a small but but still important group of people who undergo pelvic radiotherapy. The common symptoms are rectal urgency, rectal incontinence, pain, mucus discharge, and rectal bleeding.

Drug therapies for ulcerative proctitis: systematic review and meta-analysis

BACKGROUND: Patients with ulcerative colitis limited to the proctum are considered to have ulcerative proctitis (UP). In patients with more extensive ulcerative colitis, treatment occurs in a step-up fashion (5-ASA, corticosteroids, thiopurines, anti-TNF-α agents), a strategy which has proven effective. Although treatment of UP occurs using the same step-up design, the efficacy of these therapies in UP is scarcely studied. The objectives were to systematically review the literature for randomized controlled trials studying drug therapies for induction and maintenance of remission in patients with UP.

See all (24)

Summaries for consumers

Non‐surgical interventions for late rectal consequences of radiotherapy in people who have received radical radiotherapy to the pelvis

Radiotherapy is often used to treat cancer in the pelvic area. Several organs in the pelvis, such as the anus, rectum, bladder, prostate, gynaecological organs (womb, ovaries, cervix, and vagina), small bowel, and pelvic bones may be exposed to the effects of radiotherapy, which can lead to pelvic radiation disease. Symptoms from pelvic radiation disease may occur around the time of treatment (early effects) or over a period of time, often many years after treatment (late effects) due to long‐term changes secondary to scarring (fibrosis), narrowing (stenosis), and bleeding due to new blood vessel formation (telangiectasia). Damage to the rectum (radiation proctopathy) is the most often investigated late radiation effect to the pelvis, which affects a small but but still important group of people who undergo pelvic radiotherapy. The common symptoms are rectal urgency, rectal incontinence, pain, mucus discharge, and rectal bleeding.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for the treatment of the late effects of radiotherapy

There is a risk of serious complications developing after radiation treatment (radiotherapy) for cancer (late radiation tissue injury (LRTI)). These problems can be very difficult to resolve and there is some doubt as to the best approaches to treatment. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) involves breathing oxygen in a specially designed chamber. It is used as a treatment to improve oxygen supply to damaged tissue (cells within the body) and support healing.

Acupuncture (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about acupuncture as a treatment for people with cancer or cancer-related disorders.

Terms to know

Inflammation
Redness, swelling, pain, and/or a feeling of heat in an area of the body. This is a protective reaction to injury, disease, or irritation of the tissues.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)
Long-lasting disorders that cause irritation and ulcers in the gastrointestinal tract. The most common disorders are ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.
Mucosa (Mucous Membranes)
The moist, inner lining of some organs and body cavities (such as the nose, mouth, lungs, and stomach). Glands in the mucosa make mucus (a thick, slippery fluid). Also called mucous membrane.
Rectum
The last several inches of the large intestine closest to the anus.

More about Proctitis

Photo of an adult

Also called: Rectitis

Other terms to know: See all 4
Inflammation, Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), Mucosa (Mucous Membranes)

Keep up with systematic reviews on Proctitis:

Create RSS

PubMed Health Blog...

read all...