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Oppositional Defiant Disorder

A behavior disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of defiant, disobedient, and hostile behavior towards authority figures; a frequent loss of temper, arguing, becoming angry or vindictive, or other negative behaviors.

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(Source: NIH - National Cancer Institute)

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Evidence reviews

Oppositional defiant disorder: a systematic review of evidence of intervention effectiveness

Bibliographic details: Bradley M C, Mandell D.  Oppositional defiant disorder: a systematic review of evidence of intervention effectiveness. Journal of Experimental Criminology 2005; 1(3): 343-365

The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of parent training/education programmes for the treatment of conduct disorder, including oppositional defiant disorder, in children

The aim of this review was to assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of parent training programmes for the treatment of children up to the age of 18 years, with conduct disorder (CD).

Atypical antipsychotic drugs for disruptive behaviour disorders in children and youths

Children and young people with disruptive behaviour disorders often present with aggression and severe behaviour problems. These can result in families seeking psychiatric services, where a number of medications, including atypical antipsychotics, may be used to reduce these symptoms. There is evidence that the use of atypical antipsychotics for disruptive behaviour disorders in youths is on the increase. We searched for clinical studies of atypical antipsychotics used for disruptive behaviour disorders in children and young people to evaluate whether these medications are effective and safe. We found eight studies. Seven of these studies investigated the efficacy of risperidone and one study used quetiapine. The analysis suggested that risperidone led to a reduction of aggression and conduct problems to some extent after six weeks of treatment and that the medication appeared safe during the study period. Use of medication, however, was associated with significant weight gain. The findings need to be considered with caution because of the limitations of the evidence. For example, the studies measured and reported different outcome measures, which limited our ability to combine the findings, and there were no studies with children under the age of five years. We recommend that more research is carried out in this field to find out the long‐term efficacy and safety of these medications in treating disruptive behaviour disorders in children and youths.

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Summaries for consumers

Atypical antipsychotic drugs for disruptive behaviour disorders in children and youths

Children and young people with disruptive behaviour disorders often present with aggression and severe behaviour problems. These can result in families seeking psychiatric services, where a number of medications, including atypical antipsychotics, may be used to reduce these symptoms. There is evidence that the use of atypical antipsychotics for disruptive behaviour disorders in youths is on the increase. We searched for clinical studies of atypical antipsychotics used for disruptive behaviour disorders in children and young people to evaluate whether these medications are effective and safe. We found eight studies. Seven of these studies investigated the efficacy of risperidone and one study used quetiapine. The analysis suggested that risperidone led to a reduction of aggression and conduct problems to some extent after six weeks of treatment and that the medication appeared safe during the study period. Use of medication, however, was associated with significant weight gain. The findings need to be considered with caution because of the limitations of the evidence. For example, the studies measured and reported different outcome measures, which limited our ability to combine the findings, and there were no studies with children under the age of five years. We recommend that more research is carried out in this field to find out the long‐term efficacy and safety of these medications in treating disruptive behaviour disorders in children and youths.

Parent training for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children aged 5 to 18 years

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder. For a child to be diagnosed with ADHD, adults such as parents, carers, healthcare workers or teachers must have noticed higher levels of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity in the child before the age of seven years compared to children of similar age. The inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity must be observed in a range of situations, for a substantial period of time and cause impairment to the child’s learning or social development. Parent training programmes aim to equip parents with techniques to manage their child's 'difficult' or ADHD‐related behaviour (that is their inattention and hyperactivity‐impulsivity).

Antipsychotic Medicines for Children and Teens: A Review of the Research for Parents and Caregivers

This summary discusses using antipsychotic medicines to treat psychiatric conditions in children. It explains what medical research says about the benefits and possible side effects of these medicines when taken by children. This summary does not discuss other medicines to treat psychiatric conditions or non-medicine treatment options. It can help you talk with your child’s doctor to decide if an antipsychotic medicine is right for your child.

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See Also: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

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