Home > Health A – Z > Erythema

Erythema

Redness of the skin.

PubMed Health Glossary
(Source: NIH - National Cancer Institute)

What works? Research summarized

Evidence reviews

Interventions to treat erythema nodosum leprosum, a complication of leprosy

Leprosy remains a public health issue in poorer parts of the world. In 2007 there were approximately 255,000 new cases reported worldwide. Leprosy (or Hansen's disease) is a chronic infectious disease. The skin and peripheral nerves of people with leprosy contain leprosy bacteria. Leprosy can be cured with a combination of antibiotics. The immune system plays an important role in leprosy and determines if and how the disease will develop. The response of the immune system to the antigens of the leprosy bacteria may cause periods of inflammation in the skin and nerves, called reactions. Reactions are the main cause of acute nerve damage and disability in leprosy and occur in about one third of people with leprosy. One type of reaction is erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL), a serious and often chronic complication of leprosy caused by the immune system. People with ENL have red, painful swellings in the skin and often feel ill due to fever and general malaise. There are several treatments for ENL, including the oral drugs prednisolone, thalidomide, and clofazimine. We undertook a systematic review on this topic as it was not clear which treatments were most beneficial.

Atopic Eczema in Children: Management of Atopic Eczema in Children from Birth up to the Age of 12 Years

Atopic eczema (atopic dermatitis) is a chronic inflammatory itchy skin condition that develops in early childhood in the majority of cases. It is typically an episodic disease of exacerbation (flares, which may occur as frequently as two or three per month) and remissions, except for severe cases where it may be continuous. Certain patterns of atopic eczema are recognised. In infants, atopic eczema usually involves the face and extensor surfaces of the limbs and, while it may involve the trunk, the napkin area is usually spared. A few infants may exhibit a discoid pattern (circular patches). In older children flexural involvement predominates, as in adults. Diagnostic criteria are discussed in Chapter 3. As with other atopic conditions, such as asthma and allergic rhinitis (hay fever), atopic eczema often has a genetic component. In atopic eczema, inherited factors affect the development of the skin barrier, which can lead to exacerbation of the disease by a large number of trigger factors, including irritants and allergens. Many cases of atopic eczema clear or improve during childhood while others persist into adulthood, and some children who have atopic eczema `will go on to develop asthma and/or allergic rhinitis; this sequence of events is sometimes referred to as the ‘atopic march’. The epidemiology of atopic eczema is considered in Chapter 5, and the impact of the condition on children and their families/caregivers is considered in Sections 4.2 and 4.3.

Adverse events after immunisation with aluminium-containing DTP vaccines: systematic review of the evidence

The evidence of adverse effects following immunisation with aluminium-containing diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (DTP) vaccines was reviewed. The authors concluded that no evidence of any serious or long-lasting effects was found. The authors' conclusions seem reasonable, but the limited quantity and poor quality of the evidence on which they are based should be kept in mind.

See all (149)

Summaries for consumers

Interventions to treat erythema nodosum leprosum, a complication of leprosy

Leprosy remains a public health issue in poorer parts of the world. In 2007 there were approximately 255,000 new cases reported worldwide. Leprosy (or Hansen's disease) is a chronic infectious disease. The skin and peripheral nerves of people with leprosy contain leprosy bacteria. Leprosy can be cured with a combination of antibiotics. The immune system plays an important role in leprosy and determines if and how the disease will develop. The response of the immune system to the antigens of the leprosy bacteria may cause periods of inflammation in the skin and nerves, called reactions. Reactions are the main cause of acute nerve damage and disability in leprosy and occur in about one third of people with leprosy. One type of reaction is erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL), a serious and often chronic complication of leprosy caused by the immune system. People with ENL have red, painful swellings in the skin and often feel ill due to fever and general malaise. There are several treatments for ENL, including the oral drugs prednisolone, thalidomide, and clofazimine. We undertook a systematic review on this topic as it was not clear which treatments were most beneficial.

Topical anti‐inflammatory agents for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face or scalp

Seborrhoeic dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin that most often affects areas of the body that have a lot of sebaceous glands. These include the skin of the scalp; face; chest; and flexure areas such as the armpits, groin, and abdominal folds. The most typical symptoms of seborrhoeic dermatitis are scaling of the skin and reddish patches. Seborrhoeic dermatitis is fairly common: one to three in 100 people have seborrhoeic dermatitis. The disease is more common in men than in women. Anti‐inflammatory, antifungal, and antikeratolytic treatments can be used to treat seborrhoeic dermatitis. The treatment does not cure the disease but relieves the symptoms.

Ty21a and Vi polysaccharide vaccines are effective in reducing typhoid fever; new vaccines are promising

Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection found mainly among children and adolescents in south and east Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean. Typhoid fever is spread by food, drink, or contaminated water. It is characterized by fever, abdominal symptoms, headache, loss of appetite, cough, weakness, sore throat, dizziness and muscle pains. The infection also sometimes causes psychosis and confusion. Mortality varies and can reach 10% of cases. Treatment normally consists of antibiotics, but problems with drug‐resistant strains have been reported. Improved sanitation and food hygiene are important control measures. However, these are associated with socioeconomic progress that has been slow in most affected areas. Therefore vaccination is an effective way to try to prevent this disease. The review found 18 trials (17 with usable data): Six evaluated vaccine effectiveness only; six evaluated vaccine effectiveness and adverse events; and six provided data only on adverse events. The two major vaccines currently licensed for use, Ty21a and Vi polysaccharide, were effective in reducing typhoid fever; adverse events such as nausea, vomiting and fever were rare. Other vaccines, such as a new, modified, conjugated Vi vaccine called Vi‐rEPA, are in development and appear promising. A vaccine that could be given to infants would be helpful as they are probably at increased risk of this infection.

See all (18)

More about Erythema

Photo of an adult

Also called: Erythematous

Keep up with systematic reviews on Erythema:

RSS

PubMed Health Blog...

read all...