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Atrial Septal Defects (ASD)

The presence of a defect (opening) in the septum that separates the two atria of the heart. It can be congenital or acquired.

PubMed Health Glossary
(Source: NIH - National Cancer Institute)

About Atrial Septal Defects (ASD)

An atrial septal defect (ASD) is a hole in the part of the septum that separates the atria. (The atria are the upper chambers of the heart.)

An ASD allows oxygen-rich blood to flow from the left atrium into the right atrium, instead of flowing into the left ventricle as it should. So, instead of going to the body, the oxygen-rich blood is pumped back to the lungs, where it has just been.

An ASD can be small, medium, or large. Small ASDs allow only a little blood to flow from one atrium to the other. Small ASDs don't affect how the heart works and don't need any special treatment. Many small ASDs close on their own as the heart grows during childhood.

Medium and large ASDs allow more blood to leak from one atrium to the other. They're less likely to close on their own... Read more about Atrial Septal Defects

What works? Research summarized

Evidence reviews

Amplatzer transcatheter and surgical closure for ostium secundum atrial septal defects: a systematic review

Bibliographic details: Tang C, Zeng Z, Li J, Cao W Z, Huang P.  Amplatzer transcatheter and surgical closure for ostium secundum atrial septal defects: a systematic review. Chinese Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine 2007; 7(4): 267-275

Atrial septal defect closure is associated with a reduced prevalence of atrial tachyarrhythmia in the short to medium term: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Atrial tachyarrhythmias are a common complication of atrial septal defects. The objective was to determine the effect of atrial septal defect closure on pre-existing atrial tachyarrhythmias and to investigate if such an effect is present after either surgical or percutaneous closure. Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases were searched between 1967 and 2009. The search was expanded using the 'related articles' function and reference lists of key studies. All studies reporting pre- and post- closure incidence (or prevalence) of atrial tachyarrhythmias in the same patient groups were included. Data were independently extracted by two authors according to a pre-defined protocol. Incongruities were settled by consensus decision. Twenty six studies were identified including 1841 patients who underwent surgical closure and 945 who underwent percutaneous closure. Meta-analysis using a random effects model demonstrated a reduction in the prevalence of atrial tachyarrhythmias following atrial septal defect closure [OR = 0.66 (95% CI 0.57-0.77)]. This effect was demonstrated after both percutaneous [OR = 0.49 (95% CI 0.32-0.76)] and surgical closure [OR = 0.72 (95% CI 0.60-0.87)]. Immediate (<30 days) and mid-term (30 days - 5 years) follow-up also demonstrated a reduction in AT prevalence [ORs of 0.80 (95% CI 0.66-0.97) and 0.47 (95% CI 0.36-0.62) respectively]. Atrial septal defect closure, whether surgical or percutaneous, is associated with a reduction in the post-closure prevalence of pre-existing atrial tachyarrhythmias and atrial fibrillation in the short to medium term.

Newborn screening for congenital heart defects: a systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis

The objectives of this study were to provide evidence to inform policy decisions about the most appropriate newborn screening strategy for congenital heart defects and to identify priorities for future research that might reduce important uncertainties in the evidence base for such decisions.

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Summaries for consumers

Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) for increasing functional behaviors and skills in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD)

Early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) is one of the most widely used treatments for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of our review was to examine the research on EIBI. We found a total of five studies that compared EIBI to generic special education services for children with ASD in schools. Only one study randomly assigned children to a treatment or comparison group, which is considered the 'gold standard' for research. The other four studies used parent preference to assign children to groups. We examined and compared the results of all five studies. A total of 203 children (all were younger than six years old when they started treatment) were included in the five studies. We found that children receiving the EIBI treatment performed better than children in the comparison groups after about two years of treatment on tests of adaptive behavior (behaviors that increase independence and the ability to adapt to one's environment), intelligence, social skills, communication and language, autism symptoms, and quality of life. The evidence supports the use of EIBI for some children with ASD. However, the quality of this evidence is low as only a small number of children were involved in the studies and only one study randomly assigned children to groups.

Acupuncture for people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD)

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are lifelong disorders of development. People with ASD have particular difficulties with social interaction and communication and they lack flexibility in their thinking and behavior. No cure is currently available but interventions may improve symptoms. Acupuncture involves using needles or pressure on specific areas of the body and is an important therapeutic method in Traditional Chinese Medicine. It is also being used more and more in countries in the west for a range of ailments. Acupuncture has been considered as a possible intervention to improve ASD symptoms, but it has not been thoroughly evaluated to see if it works and is safe.

Aripiprazole for autism spectrum disorders (ASD)

Aripirazole is an antipsychotic medication that has been used to treat behavioral problems in individuals with autism spectrum disorders. The results of this review and its meta‐analysis of two randomized controlled trials suggest that short‐term treatment may be effective in treating irritability, hyperactivity, and repetitive movements in children and youths with autism spectrum disorders, though both weight gain and neurological side effects can occur. Due to the small number of studies performed, there are implications for research to investigate real‐world safety and effectiveness, as well as long‐term safety and tolerability of the drug.

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Terms to know

Atria
The chambers of the heart, to which the blood returns from the circulation.
Congenital Heart Defects (Congenital Heart Diseases)
Congenital heart defects are problems with the heart's structure that are present at birth.
Heart
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Heart Ventricles
The lower right and left chambers of the heart.
Interatrial Septum
The tissue that separates the right atrium from the left atrium in the heart.
Lungs
One of a pair of organs in the chest that supplies the body with oxygen, and removes carbon dioxide from the body.

More about Atrial Septal Defects

Photo of a baby

Also called: Interatrial septal defects

Other terms to know: See all 6
Atria, Congenital Heart Defects (Congenital Heart Diseases), Heart

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