Home > Health A – Z > Peritonitis

Peritonitis

Inflammation of the peritoneum (tissue that lines the abdominal wall and covers most of the organs in the abdomen). Peritonitis can result from infection, injury, or certain diseases. Symptoms may include swelling of the abdomen, severe pain, and weight loss. NIH - National Cancer Institute

What works? Research summarized

Evidence reviews

Influence of trauma, peritonitis, and obstruction on restoring intestinal continuity – to connect or not to connect?

Bibliographic details: Bingham JR, Steele SR.  Influence of trauma, peritonitis, and obstruction on restoring intestinal continuity - to connect or not to connect? Seminars in Colon and Rectal Surgery 2014; 25(2): 95-104 Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1043148914000207

Primary anastomosis or Hartmann's procedure for patients with diverticular peritonitis: a systematic review

PURPOSE: This systematic literature review was designed to summarize and compare the reported outcomes of one-stage and two-stage operations for the treatment of perforated diverticulitis with peritonitis.

Does this patient have bacterial peritonitis or portal hypertension: how do I perform a paracentesis and analyze the results?

The authors concluded that ascitic fluid should be inoculated into blood culture bottles at the bedside. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is more likely at pre-described parameters of ascitic polymorphonuclear count or blood-ascitic fluid pH, and portal hypertension is less likely below pre-described serum-ascites albumin gradients. Given several limitations, including study quality, the authors' conclusions should be interpreted with caution.

See all (106)

Summaries for consumers

Y‐set and double bag systems offer the most protection against peritonitis during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)

People with advanced kidney disease may be treated with CAPD where a catheter is permanently inserted into the peritoneum (lining around abdominal contents) through the abdominal wall and sterile fluid is drained in and out a few times each day. The most common serious complication is infection of the peritoneum ‐ peritonitis. This may be caused by bacteria accidentally being transferred from the catheter. This review of trials compared three types of connecting systems (used to connect the bags and the catheter) and found the Y‐set and double bag exchange systems are the most effective in preventing peritonitis.

Antibiotics are effective in preventing post‐operative complications following infection of the peritoneum (peritonitis), but there is no evidence to support that one regimen is superior to another, and at the same time has less side effects.

Patients with peritonitis originated from the gut will often require surgery. Antibiotics are useful in the treatment of the ongoing infection and for prevention of post‐operative complications.

The nasal antibiotic prophylactic mupirocin reduces exit‐site/tunnel infection and preoperative intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis reduces early peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis

People with advanced kidney disease may be treated with peritoneal dialysis where a catheter is permanently inserted into the peritoneum (lining around abdominal contents) through the abdominal wall and sterile fluid is drained in and out a few times each day. The most common serious complication is infection of the peritoneum ‐ peritonitis. This may be caused by bacteria accidentally being transferred from the catheter. This review found that nasal mupirocin reduces exit‐site/tunnel infection but not peritonitis while preoperative intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis reduces early peritonitis but not exit‐site/tunnel infection. More large scale trials are needed.

See all (18)

PubMed Health Blog...

read all...