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Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD)

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or BPD, is a serious lung condition that affects infants. BPD mostly affects premature infants who need oxygen therapy (oxygen given through nasal prongs, a mask, or a breathing tube).

PubMed Health Glossary
(Source: NIH - National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute)

About Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD)

Bronchopulmonary (BRONG-ko-PUL-mo-NAR-e) dysplasia (dis-PLA-ze-ah), or BPD, is a serious lung condition that affects infants. BPD mostly affects premature infants who need oxygen therapy (oxygen given through nasal prongs, a mask, or a breathing tube).

Most infants who develop BPD are born more than 10 weeks before their due dates, weigh less than 2 pounds (about 1,000 grams) at birth, and have breathing problems. Infections that occur before or shortly after birth also can contribute to BPD.

Some infants who have BPD may need long-term breathing support from nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) machines or ventilators.

Overview

Many babies who develop BPD are born with serious respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). RDS is a breathing disorder that mostly affects premature newborns. These infants' lungs aren't fully formed or aren't able to make enough surfactant (sur-FAK-tant)... Read more about Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

What works? Research summarized

Evidence reviews

Inhalation corticosteroids for bronchopulmonary dysplasia

Preterm infants have an increased risk of developing chronic lung disease or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Inflammation in the lung seems to play a central role in the development of BPD. Administration of the anti‐inflammatory drugs called corticosteroids into the bloodstream (systemically) reduces the risk of BPD but may also have serious side effects. Administering corticosteroids via inhalation directly into the lungs may reduce these adverse effects. This review looked at trials that compared inhalation corticosteroids to inhalation placebo in preterm infants at risk of developing BPD after the first week of life. These trials did not show a beneficial effect of inhalation corticosteroids on death or BPD. In addition, the safety of inhalation corticosteroids was assessed in only a small number of trials. Based on these results, inhalation corticosteroids cannot be recommended for preterm infants at risk of BPD. More studies are needed.

Increased energy intake for preterm infants with (or developing) bronchopulmonary dysplasia/ chronic lung disease

Chronic lung disease (CLD) or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a disease of premature babies who required prolonged support with their breathing and supplemental oxygen. These babies are at high risk of many short and long‐term problems with their breathing, growth and development, including death in infancy or childhood. Studies have shown that these babies have higher energy expenditure and lower energy intake compared with babies without CLD/BPD. Increasing energy intake for these babies beyond standard levels may therefore seem beneficial. However, setting high targets for energy intake for these babies may not be achievable. Furthermore, methods of increasing energy intake such as increasing the milk volume or concentration or giving intravenous nutrition may lead to complications of their own. We planned to examine whether increasing energy intake for these babies improves their breathing status, their growth and development, and reduces their risk of death without producing significant complications. Having found no suitable study to date that answers these questions, we are currently unable to provide any evidence on whether increasing the energy intake for babies with (or developing) CLD/BPD is overall beneficial.

PEEP for preterm infants receiving conventional mechanical ventilation for respiratory distress syndrome or bronchopulmonary dysplasia

Adequate gas exchange is readily accomplished in full term infants with appropriately developed lungs. In contrast, premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) often require medical support to achieve gas exchange. Conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) is a common therapy used to accomplish this.

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Summaries for consumers

Inhalation corticosteroids for bronchopulmonary dysplasia

Preterm infants have an increased risk of developing chronic lung disease or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Inflammation in the lung seems to play a central role in the development of BPD. Administration of the anti‐inflammatory drugs called corticosteroids into the bloodstream (systemically) reduces the risk of BPD but may also have serious side effects. Administering corticosteroids via inhalation directly into the lungs may reduce these adverse effects. This review looked at trials that compared inhalation corticosteroids to inhalation placebo in preterm infants at risk of developing BPD after the first week of life. These trials did not show a beneficial effect of inhalation corticosteroids on death or BPD. In addition, the safety of inhalation corticosteroids was assessed in only a small number of trials. Based on these results, inhalation corticosteroids cannot be recommended for preterm infants at risk of BPD. More studies are needed.

Increased energy intake for preterm infants with (or developing) bronchopulmonary dysplasia/ chronic lung disease

Chronic lung disease (CLD) or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a disease of premature babies who required prolonged support with their breathing and supplemental oxygen. These babies are at high risk of many short and long‐term problems with their breathing, growth and development, including death in infancy or childhood. Studies have shown that these babies have higher energy expenditure and lower energy intake compared with babies without CLD/BPD. Increasing energy intake for these babies beyond standard levels may therefore seem beneficial. However, setting high targets for energy intake for these babies may not be achievable. Furthermore, methods of increasing energy intake such as increasing the milk volume or concentration or giving intravenous nutrition may lead to complications of their own. We planned to examine whether increasing energy intake for these babies improves their breathing status, their growth and development, and reduces their risk of death without producing significant complications. Having found no suitable study to date that answers these questions, we are currently unable to provide any evidence on whether increasing the energy intake for babies with (or developing) CLD/BPD is overall beneficial.

PEEP for preterm infants receiving conventional mechanical ventilation for respiratory distress syndrome or bronchopulmonary dysplasia

Adequate gas exchange is readily accomplished in full term infants with appropriately developed lungs. In contrast, premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) or bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) often require medical support to achieve gas exchange. Conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) is a common therapy used to accomplish this.

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Terms to know

Bronchi
The large air passages that lead from the trachea (windpipe) to the lungs.
Lungs
One of a pair of organs in the chest that supplies the body with oxygen, and removes carbon dioxide from the body.
Oxygen
A colorless, odorless gas. It is needed for animal and plant life. Oxygen that is breathed in enters the blood from the lungs and travels to the tissues.
Pulmonary
Having to do with the lungs.

More about Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

Photo of a baby

Also called: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia of newborn, Chronic lung disease of prematurity, Perinatal bronchopulmonary dysplasia, Ventilator lung in newborn

See Also: Respiratory Distress Syndrome

Other terms to know: See all 4
Bronchi, Lungs, Oxygen

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