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Peritoneal Dialysis

Filtering the blood by using the lining of the abdominal cavity, or belly, as a semipermeable membrane.

PubMed Health Glossary
(Source: NIH - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases)

About Peritoneal Dialysis

A cleansing liquid, called dialysis solution, is drained from a bag into the abdomen. Fluid and wastes flow through the lining of the abdominal cavity and remain "trapped" in the dialysis solution. The solution is then drained from the abdomen, removing the extra fluid and wastes from the body.

The two main types of peritoneal dialysis are continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis. NIH - National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

What works? Research summarized

Evidence reviews

Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis versus automated peritoneal dialysis for end‐stage renal disease

Peritoneal dialysis (PD) can be performed either manually as in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) or using mechanical devices as in automated PD (APD). The aim of this review was to compare the effectiveness of CAPD and APD. Only three small randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (139 patients) were identified after an extensive literature search, and we found no difference between CAPD and APD for clinically important outcomes. APD may however be considered advantageous in select group of patients such as in the younger PD population and those in employment or education due to its psychosocial advantages. These outcomes were only reported in one trial. Large, long‐term RCTs are needed in this area.

Y‐set and double bag systems offer the most protection against peritonitis during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)

People with advanced kidney disease may be treated with CAPD where a catheter is permanently inserted into the peritoneum (lining around abdominal contents) through the abdominal wall and sterile fluid is drained in and out a few times each day. The most common serious complication is infection of the peritoneum ‐ peritonitis. This may be caused by bacteria accidentally being transferred from the catheter. This review of trials compared three types of connecting systems (used to connect the bags and the catheter) and found the Y‐set and double bag exchange systems are the most effective in preventing peritonitis.

Two dialysis solutions for acute peritoneal dialysis

Acute kidney injury (AKI) can be treated with either bicarbonate or lactate in acute peritoneal dialysis (PD). The aim of this review was to compare the effectiveness of bicarbonate versus lactate solution.

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Summaries for consumers

Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis versus automated peritoneal dialysis for end‐stage renal disease

Peritoneal dialysis (PD) can be performed either manually as in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) or using mechanical devices as in automated PD (APD). The aim of this review was to compare the effectiveness of CAPD and APD. Only three small randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (139 patients) were identified after an extensive literature search, and we found no difference between CAPD and APD for clinically important outcomes. APD may however be considered advantageous in select group of patients such as in the younger PD population and those in employment or education due to its psychosocial advantages. These outcomes were only reported in one trial. Large, long‐term RCTs are needed in this area.

Y‐set and double bag systems offer the most protection against peritonitis during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)

People with advanced kidney disease may be treated with CAPD where a catheter is permanently inserted into the peritoneum (lining around abdominal contents) through the abdominal wall and sterile fluid is drained in and out a few times each day. The most common serious complication is infection of the peritoneum ‐ peritonitis. This may be caused by bacteria accidentally being transferred from the catheter. This review of trials compared three types of connecting systems (used to connect the bags and the catheter) and found the Y‐set and double bag exchange systems are the most effective in preventing peritonitis.

Two dialysis solutions for acute peritoneal dialysis

Acute kidney injury (AKI) can be treated with either bicarbonate or lactate in acute peritoneal dialysis (PD). The aim of this review was to compare the effectiveness of bicarbonate versus lactate solution.

See all (19)

Terms to know

Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD)
A form of peritoneal dialysis that does not need a machine.
Continuous Cycling Peritoneal Dialysis (CCPD)
A form of peritoneal dialysis that uses a machine.
Dialysis
The process of filtering the blood when the kidneys are not able to cleanse it.
Dialysis Solution
A cleansing liquid used in the two major forms of dialysis - hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. Dialysis solution contains dextrose, a sugar, and other chemicals similar to those in the body. Dextrose draws wastes and extra fluid from the body into the dialysis solution.
Dialyzer
An attachment to the hemodialysis machine. The dialyzer has two sections separated by a semipermeable membrane. One section holds dialysis solution. The other holds the patient's blood.
Dwell Time
In peritoneal dialysis, the amount of time dialysis solution remains in the patient's abdominal cavity between exchanges.
Kidney
One of a pair of organs in the abdomen. The kidneys remove waste and extra water from the blood (as urine) and help keep chemicals (such as sodium, potassium, and calcium) balanced in the body. The kidneys also make hormones that help control blood pressure and stimulate bone marrow to make red blood cells.
Peritoneal Cavity
The space within the abdomen that contains the intestines, the stomach, and the liver. It is bound by thin membranes.
Peritoneum
The tissue that lines the abdominal wall and covers most of the organs in the abdomen.
Semipermeable Membrane
A thin sheet, or layer, of tissue that lines a body cavity or separates two parts of the body.

More about Peritoneal Dialysis

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See Also: Blood

Other terms to know: See all 10
Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD), Continuous Cycling Peritoneal Dialysis (CCPD), Dialysis

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