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Cervical Cancer

Cancer that forms in tissues of the cervix (the organ connecting the uterus and vagina).

PubMed Health Glossary
(Source: NIH - National Cancer Institute)

About Cervical Cancer

Cervical cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the cervix.

The cervix is the lower, narrow end of the uterus (the hollow, pear-shaped organ where a fetus grows). The cervix leads from the uterus to the vagina (birth canal).

Cervical cancer usually develops slowly over time. Before cancer appears in the cervix, the cells of the cervix go through changes known as dysplasia, in which cells that are not normal begin to appear in the cervical tissue. Later, cancer cells start to grow and spread more deeply into the cervix and to surrounding areas.

Cervical cancer in children is rare. For more information, see the PDQ summary on Unusual Cancers of Childhood.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the major risk factor for cervical cancer.

Anything that increases your risk of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you... Read more about Cervical Cancer

What works? Research summarized

Evidence reviews

Venous Thromboembolism: Reducing the Risk of Venous Thromboembolism (Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism) in Patients Admitted to Hospital

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a term used to include the formation of a blood clot (a thrombus) in a vein which may dislodge from its site of origin to travel in the blood, a phenomenon called embolism. A thrombus most commonly occurs in the deep veins of the legs; this is called deep vein thrombosis. A dislodged thrombus that travels to the lungs is known as a pulmonary embolism.

Surgery or radiotherapy for early cervical cancer of the adenocarcinoma type

Early‐stage cervical cancer of the common type, squamous cell carcinoma, has the same prognosis after primary surgery or radiotherapy. For cervical cancer of the glandular cell type (adenocarcinoma) we recommend surgery. Second best alternative for patients unfit for surgery is chemoradiation. For patients with suspected positive lymph nodes, chemoradiation is probably the first choice.

Benefit assessment of HPV testing in primary screening for cervical cancer: Executive summary of final report S10-01, Version 1.0

The main goal of this research was ■ the comparative benefit assessment of screening strategies for cervical cancer, that is, a strategy including HPV testing alone or in combination with cytology-based testing in primary screening versus a strategy that exclusively applied cytology-based testing in primary screening.

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Summaries for consumers

Surgery or radiotherapy for early cervical cancer of the adenocarcinoma type

Early‐stage cervical cancer of the common type, squamous cell carcinoma, has the same prognosis after primary surgery or radiotherapy. For cervical cancer of the glandular cell type (adenocarcinoma) we recommend surgery. Second best alternative for patients unfit for surgery is chemoradiation. For patients with suspected positive lymph nodes, chemoradiation is probably the first choice.

Better survival and reduced distant recurrence rate with combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy for cervical cancer

Evidence suggests giving chemotherapy and radiotherapy together improves overall survival, whether or not cisplatin was used. The effect appeared to be greater in trials including a high proportion of patients with early stage disease. Combined chemotherapy/radiotherapy also delayed tumour recurrence and reduced the risk of re‐growth near the original cancer site as well as in other parts of the body. There was an increase in side‐effects, principally affecting the blood and bowel, but these generally only lasted a short time. Long‐term effects were poorly reported.

Women can experience high levels of anxiety at all stages of screening for cervical cancer including colposcopy

Women can experience high levels of anxiety at all stages of screening for cervical cancer including colposcopy (visualisation of the cervix by using a binocular microscope). Colposcopy has been shown to be associated with high levels of anxiety, even higher than anxiety levels in women before surgery and similar to the anxiety levels in women following an abnormal screening test for fetal abnormalities. High levels of anxiety before and during colposcopy can have psychological consequences including pain, discomfort and failure to return for follow‐up. This review examined interventions aimed at reducing such anxiety. Anxiety associated with colposcopic examination appears to be reduced by a variety of interventions including playing music during colposcopy, and viewing the procedure on a TV monitor (video colposcopy).

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Terms to know

Cervix
The lower, narrow end of the uterus that forms a canal between the uterus and vagina.
Tumor (Neoplasm)
An abnormal mass of tissue that results when cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should. Neoplasms may be benign (not cancer), or malignant (cancer). Also called tumor.
Uterus (Womb)
The small, hollow, pear-shaped organ in a woman's pelvis. This is the organ in which a fetus develops. Also called womb.
Vagina
The muscular canal that goes from the uterus to the outside of the body. During birth, the baby passes through the vagina.

More about Cervical Cancer

Photo of a young adult woman

Also called: Malignant tumour of the cervix, Malignant neoplasm of the cervix uteri, Malignant tumor of the cervix, Malignant neoplasm of the cervix

Other terms to know: See all 4
Cervix, Tumor (Neoplasm), Uterus (Womb)

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