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Screening Pelvic Examinations in Asymptomatic Average Risk Adult Women

Evidence-based Synthesis Program

Hanna E Bloomfield, MD, MPH, Andrew Olson, MD, Amy Cantor, MD, MHS, Nancy Greer, PhD, Roderick MacDonald, MS, Indulis Rutks, BA, and Timothy J Wilt, MD, MPH.

Washington (DC): Department of Veterans Affairs (US); 2013 Sep.
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The routine pelvic examination has been a usual part of preventive care for women for many decades. In 2008, 63.4 million pelvic examinations were performed in the United States. Many women and providers believe that the routine pelvic exam should be included in an annual comprehensive well-woman visit. The exam consists of inspection of the external genitalia, speculum examination of the vagina and cervix, bimanual examination, and sometimes rectal or rectovaginal examination. Traditionally, the examination in the asymptomatic average risk women has been used to screen for pathology through palpation, visualization, and specimen collection.

Pathology potentially detectable on the pelvic examination includes malignancies (e.g., cervical, ovarian, uterine, bladder, vaginal or vulvar); infections (e.g., Chlamydia, gonorrhea, warts, candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis); pelvic inflammatory disease (PID); or other pathology (e.g., atrophic vaginitis, cervical polyps, uterine prolapse, fibroids). In addition, pelvic examinations are often performed prior to the provision of hormonal contraception. Recent high quality evidence-based reviews and guidelines have concluded that pelvic examinations are not required for Chlamydia and gonorrhea screening or for hormonal contraception initiation and up-to-date evidence-based guidelines for cervical cancer screening are also available. However, we are unaware of any systematic reviews that have investigated the utility of the pelvic examination for the other indications.

This systematic review was undertaken to evaluate the benefits and harms of the routine screening pelvic examination in asymptomatic, average risk, non-pregnant, adult women. For cervical cancer and sexually transmitted infection (i.e., Chlamydia and gonorrhea) screening and for initiation of hormonal contraception we summarize the results of recent reviews and guidelines from major US health organizations. For all other indications, we performed and report results from a comprehensive search of the medical literature.


Prepared for: Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration, Quality Enhancement Research Initiative, Health Services Research & Development Service, Washington, DC 20420. Prepared by: Evidence-based Synthesis Program (ESP) Center, Minneapolis, MN, Timothy J. Wilt, M.D., M.P.H., Director.

Suggested citation:

Bloomfield H, Olson A, Cantor A, Greer N, MacDonald R, Rutks I, and Wilt TJ. Screening Pelvic Examinations in Asymptomatic Average Risk Adult Women. VA-ESP Project #09-009; 2013

This report is based on research conducted by the Evidence-based Synthesis Program (ESP) Center located at the Minneapolis VA Medical Center, Minneapolis, MN funded by the Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration, Office of Research and Development, Quality Enhancement Research Initiative. The findings and conclusions in this document are those of the author(s) who are responsible for its contents; the findings and conclusions do not necessarily represent the views of the Department of Veterans Affairs or the United States government. Therefore, no statement in this article should be construed as an official position of the Department of Veterans Affairs. No investigators have any affiliations or financial involvement (e.g., employment, consultancies, honoraria, stock ownership or options, expert testimony, grants or patents received or pending, or royalties) that conflict with material presented in the report.

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