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Fortmann SP, Burda BU, Senger CA, et al. Vitamin, Mineral, and Multivitamin Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: A Systematic Evidence Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2013 Nov. (Evidence Syntheses, No. 108.)

Appendix HSensitivity Analysis: Random vs. Fixed Effects Models

Appendix H Table 1Unadjusted Relative Risk for All-Cause Mortality at Longest Followup Only, by Supplement

SupplementStudyDerSimonian and Laird Random Effects Unadjusted RR (95% CI)Mantel-Haenszel Fixed Effects Unadjusted RR (95% CI)
MVIREACT2.98 (0.82, 10.79)2.98 (0.82, 10.79)
PHS-II0.95 (0.89, 1.02)0.95 (0.89, 1.02)
SU.VI.MAX0.88 (0.71, 1.09)0.88 (0.71, 1.09)
Subtotal0.95 (0.80, 1.11)0.95 (0.89, 1.01)
Beta-caroteneWHS1.07 (0.74, 1.55)1.07 (0.74, 1.55)
NSCPS0.51 (0.25, 1.05)0.51 (0.25, 1.05)
SCPS1.03 (0.83, 1.27)1.03 (0.83, 1.27)
PHS-I1.01 (0.93, 1.10)1.01 (0.93, 1.10)
ATBC1.05 (1.02, 1.09)1.05 (1.02, 1.09)
Subtotal1.04 (0.99, 1.09)1.05 (1.02, 1.08)
Vitamin EASAP3.00 (0.32, 28.47)3.00 (0.32, 28.47)
PHS-II1.03 (0.94, 1.12)1.03 (0.94, 1.12)
WHS1.03 (0.93, 1.15)1.03 (0.93, 1.15)
SELECT1.01 (0.90, 1.13)1.01 (0.90, 1.13)
ATBC1.01 (0.98, 1.04)1.01 (0.98, 1.04)
Subtotal1.01 (0.98, 1.04)1.01 (0.98, 1.04)
SeleniumNPC0.99 (0.78, 1.25)0.98 (0.78, 1.24)
SELECT0.97 (0.87, 1.09)0.97 (0.87, 1.09)
Subtotal0.97 (0.88, 1.08)0.97 (0.88, 1.08)
Vitamin ASKICAP-AK1.15 (0.81, 1.65)1.15 (0.81, 1.65)
Vitamin CASAP1.00 (0.06, 15.82)1.00 (0.06, 15.82)
PHS-II1.06 (0.97, 1.16)1.06 (0.97, 1.16)
Subtotal1.06 (0.97, 1.16)1.06 (0.97, 1.16)
Folic AcidAFPPS0.52 (0.24, 1.10)0.52 (0.24, 1.10)
Vitamin DTrivedi 20030.90 (0.77, 1.07)0.90 (0.77, 1.07)
RECORD0.95 (0.88, 1.02)0.95 (0.88, 1.02)
Subtotal0.94 (0.88, 1.01)0.94 (0.87, 1.01)
CalciumCPPS1.14 (0.65, 1.99)1.14 (0.65, 1.99)
ACS1.18 (0.73, 1.92)1.18 (0.73, 1.92)
RECORD1.03 (0.95, 1.11)1.03 (0.95, 1.11)
Subtotal1.04 (0.96, 1.12)1.04 (0.96, 1.12)
Vitamin D + CalciumWHI0.92 (0.83, 1.01)0.92 (0.83, 1.01)

Abbreviations: ACS = Auckland Calcium Study; AFPPS = Aspirin/Folate Polyp Prevention Study; ASAP = Antioxidant Supplementation in Atherosclerosis Prevention; ATBC = Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention; CI = confidence interval; CPPS = Calcium Polyp Prevention Study; MVI = multivitamin; NPC = Nutritional Prevention of Cancer; NSCPS = Nambour Skin Cancer Prevention Study; PHS = Physician's Health Study; REACT = Roche European American Cataract Trial; RECORD = Randomized Evaluation of Calcium or Vitamin D; RR = relative risk; SCPS = Skin Cancer Prevention Study; SELECT = Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial; SKICAP-AK = Skin Cancer Prevention Trial-Actinic Keratoses; SU.VI.MAX = Supplementation in Vitamins and Mineral Antioxidants Study; WHI = Women's Health Initiative; WHS = Women's Health Study.

Appendix H Table 2Unadjusted Relative Risk for Any Cancer Incidence at Longest Followup Only, by Supplement

SupplementStudyDerSimonian and Laird Random Effects Unadjusted RR (95% CI)Mantel-Haenszel Fixed Effects Unadjusted RR (95% CI)
MVIPHS-II0.94 (0.87, 1.00)0.94 (0.87, 1.00)
SU.VI.MAX0.97 (0.86, 1.09)0.97 (0.86, 1.09)
Subtotal0.94 (0.89, 1.00)0.94 (0.89, 1.00)
Beta-caroteneWHS1.02 (0.89, 1.18)1.02 (0.89, 1.18)
PHS-I0.97 (0.90, 1.04)0.97 (0.90, 1.04)
Subtotal0.98 (0.92, 1.05)0.98 (0.92, 1.05)
Vitamin EPHS-II1.03 (0.95, 1.12)1.03 (0.95, 1.12)
WHS1.01 (0.94, 1.08)1.01 (0.94, 1.08)
SELECT1.07 (0.99, 1.15)1.07 (0.99, 1.15)
Subtotal1.03 (0.99, 1.08)1.03 (0.99, 1.08)
SeleniumNPC0.78 (0.62, 0.98)0.78 (0.62, 0.98)
SELECT1.02 (0.94, 1.10)1.02 (0.94, 1.10)
Subtotal0.91 (0.70, 1.18)0.99 (0.92, 1.06)
Vitamin CPHS-II1.00 (0.92, 1.09)1.00 (0.92, 1.09)
Folic AcidAFPPS1.65 (1.09, 2.51)1.65 (1.09, 2.51)
Vitamin DTrivedi 20031.08 (0.89, 1.31)1.08 (0.89, 1.31)
RECORD1.04 (0.91, 1.19)1.04 (0.91, 1.19)
Subtotal1.05 (0.94, 1.18)1.05 (0.94, 1.18)
CalciumCPPS0.72 (0.97, 1.37)0.72 (0.97, 1.37)
Lappe 20070.55 (0.29, 1.03)0.55 (0.29, 1.03)
RECORD1.08 (0.94, 1.23)1.08 (0.94, 1.23)
Subtotal1.03 (0.90, 1.17)1.03 (0.90, 1.17)
Vitamin D + CalciumWHI0.98 (0.92, 1.05)0.98 (0.92, 1.05)
Lappe 20070.42 (0.21, 0.83)0.42 (0.21, 0.83)
Subtotal0.69 (0.30, 1.57)0.98 (0.91, 1.04)

Abbreviations: AFPPS = Aspirin/Folate Polyp Prevention Study; CI = confidence interval; CPPS = Calcium Polyp Prevention Study; MVI = multivitamin; NPC = Nutritional Prevention of Cancer; PHS = Physician's Health Study; RECORD = Randomized Evaluation of Calcium or Vitamin D; RR = relative risk; SELECT = Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial; SU.VI.MAX = Supplementation in Vitamins and Mineral Antioxidants Study; WHI = Women's Health Initiative; WHS = Women's Health Study.

Cover of Vitamin, Mineral, and Multivitamin Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer
Vitamin, Mineral, and Multivitamin Supplements for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer: A Systematic Evidence Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force [Internet].
Evidence Syntheses, No. 108.
Fortmann SP, Burda BU, Senger CA, et al.

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