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Table 6Strength of evidence: Studies that evaluate pharmacological and food supplement interventions compared to inactive control and report subjective loudness outcomes

Intervention GroupSpecifics# of Studies (n)Risk of BiasConsistencyDirectnessPrecisionMagnitude of the Effect SMD Range (CI)SOE
Anti-depressantsSertraline1*99,122LowUnknown (single study)DirectImprecise−0.45 (−0.95 to 0.05)Insufficient
Neuro-transmitter drugsBaclofen, alprazolam
328,114,119MediumConsistentDirectImprecise−2.08 (−2.87 to −1.30) to −0.29 (−0.79 to 0.22)Low
Other drugsMEP, Deanxit2107,117MediumUnknown (single study)
(Cannot calculate SMD in Deanxit study107)
DirectImprecise−0.07 (−0.58 to 0.44)Insufficient
Food supplementGingko biloba
286,93MediumUnknown (single study)
(Cannot calculate SMD in zinc study86)
DirectImprecise−0.91 (−1.60 to −0.22)Insufficient

Abbreviations: CI = confidence interval; MEP = methylprednisolone injections; n = number; SOE = strength of evidence; SMD = standard mean difference

Note: all drugs were compared to placebo; Deanxit comparison was a crossover trial of Deanxit versus placebo, with each participant given 1 mg clonazapam in addition to Deanxit or placebo.


one study, two publications

one study, two publications

From: Results

Cover of Evaluation and Treatment of Tinnitus: Comparative Effectiveness
Evaluation and Treatment of Tinnitus: Comparative Effectiveness [Internet].
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 122.
Pichora-Fuller MK, Santaguida P, Hammill A, et al.

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