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This figure shows the effect size (standardized mean difference ‘SMD’) with 95% confidence interval for each study in a forest plot for psychological and behavioral interventions for the outcome of sleep disturbances. Six studies show a SMD with 95% confidence interval that crosses 0 (no difference) between groups, while two studies show a SMD with 95% confidence interval less than 0 (Favors treatment group as compared to control group).

Figure 17Studies with inactive comparators that evaluate psychological and behavioral interventions and report sleep disturbance outcomes

Note: A decrease in score indicates improvement.

** Represent studies with multiple intervention arms.

From: Results

Cover of Evaluation and Treatment of Tinnitus: Comparative Effectiveness
Evaluation and Treatment of Tinnitus: Comparative Effectiveness [Internet].
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 122.
Pichora-Fuller MK, Santaguida P, Hammill A, et al.

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