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Table 1Parenting interventions: Key features

InterventionBrief Description
Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up7785
  • Home-based approach to help foster parents provide nurturing, sensitive care that promotes child regulatory capabilities and attachment formation
  • Employs manualized parenting curriculum, flexibility in responding to current issues, and use of videotapes of parent-child interaction to illuminate child cues and strengths in the relationship
  • 10, 1-hour weekly home visits with child and foster parent or child and biological caregiver together
  • Children ages birth to 5 years
Attachment-based Intervention86
  • Home-based approach loosely derived from Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up and other attachment-focused interventions; focuses on maternal sensitivity to child emotional and behavioral cues to support secure attachment
  • Employs individualized parent-child interaction support, video feedback, and discussion of attachment/emotion regulation-related themes
  • 8, 1.5-hour weekly home visits
  • Children ages 1 to 5 years
Child-Parent Psychotherapy87,88
  • Dyadic home- or clinic-based approach; relationship-based dyadic psychotherapy as developed and manualized by Cicchetti and colleagues, with focus on supporting formation of and repairing the parent-child attachment relationship
  • Based on infant mental health principles; attachment and developmental psychopathology theory
  • Employs the parent-child relationship as the “port of entry” for therapeutic work
  • 50, approximately 1-hour weekly home visits with child and caregiver together
  • Children ages 12 months to 5 years
Incredible Years Adaptation89
  • Incredible Years90 adapted for use with foster and biological parent pairs to address placement issues such as safety and attachment; supplemented with a coparenting component based on structural family systems theory; focuses on supporting a positive, nonconflicted relationship between caregivers and promotes a caregiving environment sensitive to the child’s needs
  • 12, 2-hour weekly parent group sessions for biological-foster parent pairs, supplemented weekly sessions (duration not specified) with individual families (biological and foster parent pair and target child)
  • Children ages 3 to 10 years
Keeping Foster Parents Trained and Supported91,92
  • Didactic group-based parent training approach to increase foster and kin parents’ positive reinforcement relative to discipline, based on the foster parent training component in the Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care model (see Table 2 below); focuses on positive discipline strategies
  • Delivered by paraprofessionals; employs role plays, videotapes, homework practice
  • Employs didactic training and group discussion related to primary curriculum concepts
  • 16, 1.5-hour weekly parent group sessions, with 15-minute didactic presentations by facilitators then group discussion related to primary curriculum concepts
  • Children ages 5 to 12 years
Nurse Home Visitation Intervention93
  • Home-visiting approach; focuses on intensive family support, parent education, and referrals to health and social services; derived from Olds and colleagues preventive intervention but authors developed their own manual94
  • Employs mutual problem identification, goal setting, and problem-solving strategies; supporting positive parent-child interaction
  • 6 months of 1.5-hour weekly home visits with parent, then visits every 2 weeks for 6 months, then monthly visits for 12 months
  • Children ages birth to 13 years
Parent-Child Interaction Therapy Adaptation9597
  • Standard parent-child interaction therapy98 adapted for abusive or neglectful parents; based on social learning and attachment theory; includes a motivational intervention orientation
  • Three phases: (1) motivational intervention (orientation phase); (2) child-directed interaction phase during which parents develop child-centered interaction skills; (3) parent-directed interaction phase during which effective discipline skills are the focus
  • Employs live parent-child skills practice/rehearsal, with live coaching by the therapist (immediate feedback from therapist from observation room to parent via wireless earphone); coaching driven by behavioral principles such as modeling, reinforcement, and selective attending to shape parents’ behaviors
  • Motivational intervention: 6 clinic-based parent group sessions/therapeutic sessions: 12 to 14 approximately 1-hour clinic-based individual sessions with parent and child together
  • Children ages 4 to 12 years
SafeCare100
  • Home-based multifaceted parent services to prevent and treat child abuse and neglect, formerly known as Project 12-Ways
  • Modules address parent-child or parent-infant interaction, parental stress, and home safety risks including behavior management, problem solving, infant and child health and nutrition, and social support.
  • Home visits at least weekly for 6 months (duration not specified)
  • Children ages 0 to 12 years
Videotape Intervention101
  • Brief videotape intervention informed by social learning theory to increase supportive maternal behaviors following sexual abuse of a child and the child’s subsequent medical evaluation
  • Videotape provides specific information about short- and long-term psychological and behavioral effects commonly seen in sexually abused children, common reactions of parents, and importance of how parent respond to children; suggested responses presented as “BRAVE To Tell” representing five specific supportive behavioral approaches for interacting with child
  • 22-minute videotape presented to parents during child’s forensic examination
  • Children ages 4 to 12 years

Note: This table only includes interventions that are included in the Results chapter of this review. There are many other interventions that are commonly used with this population; however, we did not identify any comparative studies with low or medium risk of bias that empirically assessed these interventions. Descriptions based on information provided by the authors in the included studies, the intervention Web sites (when available), and several registries of programs and practices.102106

From: Introduction

Cover of Child Exposure to Trauma: Comparative Effectiveness of Interventions Addressing Maltreatment
Child Exposure to Trauma: Comparative Effectiveness of Interventions Addressing Maltreatment [Internet].
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 89.
Fraser JG, Lloyd SW, Murphy RA, et al.

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