Table 1Characteristics of the target studies according to the PICOTS framework

  • Adults (18 years and older).
  • Sub groups at greatest risk for weight gain including by: baseline weight (healthy weight/overweight); age groups; life events (college, menopause, retirement); race, ethnicity or cultural group; gender; income, socioeconomic status, or educational attainment; family history of obesity; people with mental illness; cancer patients or survivors not at risk of weight loss; and people with diabetes or cardiovascular disease or those at high risk of these conditions.
Interventions and approaches
  • Self management, dietary, physical activity, medication, or a combination of these strategies.
  • Studies that educate the participants about a strategy will be reported in the section about that strategy.
  • Behavior change about a strategy is reported with the strategy and not with the self-management strategies.
  • No intervention, usual care, information packet, or comparison with other self management, dietary, physical activity, medication, or combination of strategies.
  • Intermediate outcomes of interest include: adherence to the intervention at the individual level for Key Questions 1 through 5, and use of environmental modification for Key Question 6.
  • Prevention of obesity related outcomes including mortality cancer recurrence* and quality of life.
  • Adverse effects of strategies included burden of intervention, nutritional deficiencies, eating disorders, activity related injuries including fracture, and adverse events of orlistat (e.g., diarrhea or leakage).
  • Weight gain prevention outcomes include:
  • Percent or mean change from baseline weight, BMI or waist circumference.
  • Maintenance of weight within same BMI category as the baseline measure.
  • The strategy of interest must be measured after age 18.
  • The study must report the change in weight over at least 1 year during adulthood.
  • Followup duration will be considered in the analysis. In addition to 1 year, specific timepoints of interest include 2, 5, and the last reported timepoints after 5 years, when available.
  • Any setting.
  • Studies conducted in educational settings or workplaces will be reported with other studies conducted in the same setting regardless of the strategy.

BMI = body mass index


In populations with cancer only.

In populations with cancer only.

From: Introduction

Cover of Strategies to Prevent Weight Gain Among Adults
Strategies to Prevent Weight Gain Among Adults [Internet].
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 97.
Hutfless S, Maruthur NM, Wilson RF, et al.

PubMed Health. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.