Table G.10What is the diagnostic accuracy of two or more hCG measurements for determining a viable intrauterine pregnancy in women with pain and bleeding and pregnancy of unknown location?

Bibliographic informationReason for exclusion
Achiron,R., Schejter,E., Zakut,H., Combined pelvic sonography and serum beta hCG, versus laparoscopy for the diagnosis of stable patient suspected of ectopic pregnancy, Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics and Gynecology, 14, 15-22, 1987Wrong test - used an hCG threshold, not the rate of change of serial hCG measurements
Achiron,R., Schwartz,S., Zakut,H., Diagnostic value of ultrasound scanning and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin in stable patients suspected of ectopic pregnancy, Israel Journal of Medical Sciences, 22, 594-596, 1986Wrong test - does not assess the rate of change of hCG
Adoni,A., Milwidsky,A., Hurwitz,A., Palti,Z., Declining beta-HCG levels: an indicator for expectant approach in ectopic pregnancy, International Journal of Fertility, 31, 40-42, 1986No relevant outcomes reported - patterns of hCG are evaluated for the choice of management approach, not for the diagnosis of pregnancy outcome.
Alhamdan,D., Bignardi,T., Casikar,I., Riemke,J., Condous,G., Pre-treatment human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) ratio in the management of non-tubal ectopic pregnancy, Ceylon Medical Journal, 56, 70-71, 2011Single case report
Altay,M.M., Yaz,H., Haberal,A., The assessment of the gestational sac diameter, crown-rump length, progesterone and fetal heart rate measurements at the 10th gestational week to predict the spontaneous abortion risk, Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research, 35, 287-292, 2009Wrong population - excludes women with pain and bleeding; only reports diagnostic accuracy of progesterone
Ankum,W.M., van,derVeenF, Hamerlynck,J.V.T.H., Lammes,F.B., Suspected ectopic pregnancy: What to do when human chorionic gonadotropin levels are below the discriminatory zone, Journal of Reproductive Medicine for the Obstetrician and Gynecologist, 40, 525-528, 1995Wrong test - reports diagnostic accuracy of an algorithm that evaluates hCG thresholds, not the rate of change of hCG
Ankum,W.M., van,derVeenF, Hamerlynck,Th, Lammes,F.B., Transvaginal sonography and human chorionic gonadotrophin measurements in suspected ectopic pregnancy: A detailed analysis of a diagnostic approach, Human Reproduction, 8, 1307-1311, 1993Wrong test - reports diagnostic accuracy of hCG levels and ranges, not rate of change of hCG
Atri,M., Chow,C.M., Kintzen,G., Gillett,P., Aldis,A.A., Thibodeau,M., Reinhold,C., Bret,P.M., Expectant treatment of ectopic pregnancies: Clinical and sonographic predictors, American Journal of Roentgenology, 176, 123-127, 2001No relevant outcomes reported - serial hCG tests were used only as a predictor of the success of expectant management of ectopic pregnancy.
Banerjee,S., Aslam,N., Zosmer,N., Woelfer,B., Jurkovic,D., The expectant management of women with early pregnancy of unknown location, Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 14, 231-236, 1999Wrong test - reports serum hCG level, not rate of change of hCG.
Barnhart,K., Mennuti,M.T., Benjamin,I., Jacobson,S., Goodman,D., Coutifaris,C., Prompt diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy in an emergency department setting, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 84, 1010-1015, 1994Wrong test - algorithm is for diagnosing ectopic pregnancy, not viable intrauterine pregnancy.
Barnhart,K.T., Casanova,B., Sammel,M.D., Timbers,K., Chung,K., Kulp,J.L., Prediction of location of a symptomatic early gestation based solely on clinical presentation, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 112, 1319-1326, 2008Wrong test - model included hCG level only, not the pattern of change in hCG.
Barnhart,K.T., Sammel,M.D., Appleby,D., Rausch,M., Molinaro,T., Van,Calster B., Kirk,E., Condous,G., Van,Huffel S., Timmerman,D., Bourne,T., Does a prediction model for pregnancy of unknown location developed in the UK validate on a US population?, Human Reproduction, 25, 2434-2440, 2010Both viable and non-viable intrauterine pregnancies are included in the “IUP” group
Barnhart,K.T., Simhan,H., Kamelle,S.A., Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound above and below the beta-hCG discriminatory zone, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 94, 583-587, 1999Wrong test - reports diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in conjunction with an hCG discriminatory zone only
Bignardi,T., Condous,G., Alhamdan,D., Kirk,E., Van,CalsterB, Van,HuffelS, Timmerman,D., Bourne,T., The hCG ratio can predict the ultimate viability of the intrauterine pregnancies of uncertain viability in the pregnancy of unknown location population, Human Reproduction, 23, -1967, 2008Wrong population - the study participants all have intrauterine pregnancies
Bignardi,T., Condous,G., Kirk,E., Van,CalsterB, Van,HuffelS, Timmerman,D., Bourne,T., Viability of intrauterine pregnancy in women with pregnancy of unknown location: prediction using human chorionic gonadotropin ratio vs. progesterone, Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 35, 656-661, 2010Wrong study population - only includes women with an intrauterine pregnancy of uncertain viability; therefore does not match the presenting population (PUL) for this review
Cacciatore,B., Early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy by ultrasonography and quantitative determinations of serum hCG, Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 70, 633-638, 1991Wrong test - primarily focuses on ultrasound and uses discriminatory zone of hCG only
Cacciatore,B., Stenman,U.H., stalo,P., Diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy by vaginal ultrasonography in combination with a discriminatory serum hCG level of 1000 IU/l (IRP), British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 97, 904-908, 1990Wrong test - reports diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in conjunction with an hCG discriminatory zone
Catania,V., Murgia,F., Non invasive diagnosis and therapy of ectopic pregnancy, Giornale Italiano di Ostetricia e Ginecologia, 15, 513-515, 1993No relevant outcomes reported - evaluates hCG declines following treatment with methotrexate, not the use of hCG levels for diagnosis
Chambers,S.E., Muir,B.B., Haddad,N.G., Ultrasound evaluation of ectopic pregnancy including correlation with human chorionic gonadotrophin levels, British Journal of Radiology, 63, 246-250, 1990Wrong test - reports diagnostic accuracy of a single hCG discriminatory zone
Chung,K., Chandavarkar,U., Opper,N., Barnhart,K., Reevaluating the role of dilation and curettage in the diagnosis of pregnancy of unknown location, Fertility and Sterility, 96, 659-662, 2011All of the study population underwent D&C for suspected EP; therefore there was no gold standard diagnosis of any potentially viable IUP
Condous,G., Kirk,E., Lu,C., Van Huffel S., Gevaert,O., De,Moor B., De,Smet F., Timmerman,D., Bourne,T., Diagnostic accuracy of varying discriminatory zones for the prediction of ectopic pregnancy in women with a pregnancy of unknown location, Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 26, 770-775, 2005Wrong test - evaluates the use of hCG discriminatory zones, not the rate of change of hCG
Condous,G., Kirk,E., Van,CalsterB, Van,HuffelS, Timmerman,D., Bourne,T., Failing pregnancies of unknown location: A prospective evaluation of the human chorionic gonadotrophin ratio, BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 113, 521-527, 2006No relevant outcomes reported - reports diagnostic accuracy for diagnosis of a failing pregnancy of unknown location
Condous,G., Okaro,E., Khalid,A., Bourne,T., Do we need to follow up complete miscarriages with serum human chorionic gonadotrophin levels?, BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 112, 827-829, 2005Wrong population - this study only includes women diagnosed with a complete miscarriage
Condous,G., Okaro,E., Khalid,A., Lu,C., Van Huffel,S., Timmerman,D., Bourne,T., A prospective evaluation of a single-visit strategy to manage pregnancies of unknown location, Human Reproduction, #20, 1398-1403, 2005Wrong test - evaluates a single visit strategy and therefore does not use serial hCG measurements
Condous,G., Okaro,E., Khalid,A., Timmerman,D., Lu,C., Zhou,Y., Van,HuffelS, Bourne,T., The use of a new logistic regression model for predicting the outcome of pregnancies of unknown location, Human Reproduction, #19, -1910, 2004Both viable and non-viable intrauterine pregnancies are included in the “IUP” group, and cannot be distinguished
Condous,G., Van Calster,B., Kirk,E., Haider,Z., Timmerman,D., Van,HuffelS, Bourne,T., Clinical information does not improve the performance of mathematical models in predicting the outcome of pregnancies of unknown location, Fertility and Sterility, 88, 572-580, 2007Diagnostic accuracy of M4 has been reported other included studies (Condous et al. 2007; Barnhart et al. 2010). The model in this paper is simply model M4 plus bleeding.
Condous,G., Van Calster,B., Kirk,E., Haider,Z., Timmerman,D., Van,HuffelS, Bourne,T., Prediction of ectopic pregnancy in women with a pregnancy of unknown location, Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 29, 680-687, 2007Both viable and non-viable intrauterine pregnancies are included in the “IUP” group
Condous,G., Van Calster,B., Kirk,E., Timmerman,D., Van,HuffelS, Bourne,T., Prospective cross-validation of three methods of predicting failing pregnancies of unknown location, Human Reproduction, 22, 1156-1160, 2007No relevant outcomes reported - diagnostic accuracy is only reported for the diagnosis of failing pregnancies of unknown location
Day,A., Sawyer,E., Mavrelos,D., Tailor,A., Helmy,S., Jurkovic,D., Use of serum progesterone measurements to reduce need for follow-up in women with pregnancies of unknown location, Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 33, 704-710, 2009Wrong test - reports the use of progesterone in conjunction with a single hCG threshold, not the rate of change of hCG
El Bishry,G., Ganta,S., The role of single serum progesterone measurement in conjunction with betahCG in the management of suspected ectopic pregnancy, Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 28, 413-417, 2008Wrong test - reports diagnostic accuracy of progesterone
Elson,J., Salim,R., Tailor,A., Banerjee,S., Zosmer,N., Jurkovic,D., Prediction of early pregnancy viability in the absence of an ultrasonically detectable embryo, Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 21, 57-61, 2003Wrong population - participants all have intrauterine gestation sac visualised, therefore do not have PUL. Diagnostic accuracy of hCG levels, not pattern of change, are reported
Eriksen,B.C., Eik-Nes,S.H., Prognostic value of ultrasound, HCG and progesterone in threatened abortion, Journal of Clinical Ultrasound, 14, 3-9, 1986Wrong test - uses single value of both hCG and progesterone
Falco,P., Zagonari,S., Gabrielli,S., Bevini,M., Pilu,G., Bovicelli,L., Sonography of pregnancies with first-trimester bleeding and a small intrauterine gestational sac without a demonstrable embryo, Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 21, 62-65, 2003Wrong test - reports diagnostic accuracy of hCG level not rate of change
Florio,P., Severi,F.M., Bocchi,C., Luisi,S., Mazzini,M., Danero,S., Torricelli,M., Petraglia,F., Single serum activin a testing to predict ectopic pregnancy, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 92, 1748-1753, 2007Wrong test - reports accuracy of single hCG and progesterone levels only
Gevaert,O., De,SmetF, Kirk,E., Van,CalsterB, Bourne,T., Van,HuffelS, Moreau,Y., Timmerman,D., De,MoorB, Condous,G., Predicting the outcome of pregnancies of unknown location: Bayesian networks with expert prior information compared to logistic regression, Human Reproduction, 21, 1824-1831, 2006Wrong test - model incorporates progesterone
Gochis,P., Hasenyager,C., Aiman,J., A semiquantitative human chorionic gonadotropin assay for the detection of ectopic pregnancy, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 71, 652-656, 1988Wrong population - reports diagnostic accuracy of an hCG test on serum samples of known concentration, not for the diagnosis of pregnancy outcome.
Gracia,C.R., Barnhart,K.T., Diagnosing ectopic pregnancy: decision analysis comparing six strategies, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 97, 464-470, 2001Wrong population - modelling and results are based on a hypothetical cohort only
Graczykowski,J.W., Seifer,D.B., Diagnosis of acute and persistent ectopic pregnancy, Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 42, 9-22, 1999Non-systematic review.
Guerriero,S., Mais,V., Ajossa,S., Paoletti,A.M., Risalvato,A., Melis,G.B., The screening of embryonic viability in early asymptomatic pregnancy by a single endosonographic scan associated with plasma human chorionic gonadotropin determination, Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics, 11, 346-352, 1994Wrong population - participants were asymptomatic, those with bleeding were excluded
Hahlin,M., Thorburn,J., Bryman,I., The expectant management of early pregnancies of uncertain site, Human Reproduction, 10, 1223-1227, 1995Wrong outcome - reports hormonal predictors of spontaneous resolution of pregnancy, in a sub-set of women selected for expectant management
Hajenius,P.J., Mol,B.W., Ankum,W.M., van der Veen,F., Bossuyt,P.M., Lammes,F.B., Suspected ectopic pregnancy: expectant management in patients with negative sonographic findings and low serum hCG concentrations, Early pregnancy : biology and medicine : the official journal of the Society for the Investigation of Early Pregnancy, 1, 258-262, 1995Wrong test - reports diagnostic accuracy of an algorithm that evaluates hCG thresholds, not the rate of change of hCG
Jakiel,G., Wieczorek,P., Bokiniec,M., Bakalczuk,S., Ectopic pregnancy diagnosis in very high risk patients, Ginekologia Polska, 69, 575-579, 1998Wrong test - this study uses a positive or negative hCG test, not the results of serial measurements
Kadar,N., Romero,R., Observations on the log human chorionic gonadotropin-time relationship in early pregnancy and its practical implications, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 157, 73-78, 1987Case-control study including only ectopic pregnancies and viable intrauterine gestations, therefore the study participants do not match the presenting population for the review question
Kaplan,B.C., Dart,R.G., Moskos,M., Kuligowska,E., Chun,B., Adel,Hamid M., Northern,K., Schmidt,J., Kharwadkar,A., Ectopic pregnancy: prospective study with improved diagnostic accuracy, Annals of Emergency Medicine, 28, 10-17, 1996Wrong test - reports use of an hCG threshold, not the rate of change of hCG
Karri,K., Harris,C.P., Successful laparoscopic management of ectopic pregnancy in a district general hospital, Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 25, 769-771, 2005Wrong population - includes confirmed ectopic pregnancies only
Kim,D.S., Chung,S.R., Park,M.I., Kim,Y.P., Comparative review of diagnostic accuracy in tubal pregnancy: a 14-year survey of 1040 cases, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 70, 547-554, 1987Wrong test - does not report the use of serial quantitative hCG measurements
Kirk,E., Condous,G., Van,Calster B., Van,Huffel S., Timmerman,D., Bourne,T., Rationalizing the follow-up of pregnancies of unknown location, Human Reproduction, 22, 1744-1750, 2007Viable and non-viable intrauterine pregnancies are not distinguishable
Koh,G.H., Yeo,G.S., Diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy--why we need a protocol, Singapore Medical Journal, 38, 369-374, 1997This is an audit of a protocol, not a diagnostic accuracy study.
Kuscu,E., Vicdan,K., Turhan,N.O., Oguz,S., Zorlu,G., Gokmen,O., The hormonal profile in ectopic pregnancies, JPMA - Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, 44, 45-47, 1994Wrong test - single serum hCG only
Kuscu,E., Vicdan,K., Turhan,N.O., Oguz,S., Zorlu,G., Gokmen,O., The hormonal profile in ectopic pregnancies, Materia Medica Polona, 25, 149-152, 1993Wrong test - single serum hCG only
Lautmann,K., Cordina,M., Elson,J., Johns,J., Schramm-Gajraj,K., Ross,J.A., Clinical use of a model to predict the viability of early intrauterine pregnancies when no embryo is visible on ultrasound, Human Reproduction, 26, 2957-2963, 2011Wrong study population - only includes women with an intrauterine pregnancy of uncertain viability; therefore does not match the presenting population (PUL) for this review
Ledger,W.L., Sweeting,V.M., Chatterjee,S., Rapid diagnosis of early ectopic pregnancy in an emergency gynaecology service--are measurements of progesterone, intact and free beta human chorionic gonadotrophin helpful?, Human Reproduction, 9, 157-160, 1994Wrong test - uses a single value of hCG and progesterone
Letterie,G.S., Hibbert,M., Serial serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels in ectopic pregnancy and first trimester miscarriage, Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 263, 168-169, 2000Wrong population - this study only includes ectopic pregnancies and miscarriages
Letterie,G.S., Hibbert,M.L., Ramirez,E.J., Expectant management of abnormal concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin during the first trimester of pregnancy, Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation, 31, 176-178, 1991No relevant outcomes - examines hCG decline in women pre-selected for expectant management, not diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy
Leung,A., Wong,F., Chang,A., The evaluation of a pregnancy test (Tandem ICON) in the management of ectopic pregnancy, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 27, 224-225, 1987Wrong test - this study uses urinary hCG tests, not a serum hCG test
Lindblom,B., Hahlin,M., Lindblom,P., Serial human chorionic gonadotropin determinations by fluoroimmunoassay for differentiation between intrauterine and ectopic gestation, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 161, 397-400, 1989Serial hCG is only used for diagnosing a small proportion of women, who are not the correct presenting population
Mateer,J.R., Aiman,E.J., Brown,M.H., Olson,D.W., Ultrasonographic examination by emergency physicians of patients at risk for ectopic pregnancy, Academic Emergency Medicine, 2, 867-873, 1995Wrong test - uses hCG discriminatory zone, not the rate of change of hCG
Mol,B.W.J., Hajenius,P.J., Ankum,W.M., Bossuyt,P.M.M., Van dder Veen,F., Screening for ectopic pregnancy in symptom-free women at increased risk, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 89, 704-707, 1997Wrong population because participants were symptom-free; evaluates use of an algorithm incorporating hCG thresholds not rate of change
Mol,B.W.J., Hajenius,P.J., Engelsbel,S., Ankum,W.M., van der Veen,F., Hemrika,D.J., Bossuyt,P.M.M., Are gestational age and endometrial thickness alternatives for serum human chorionic gonadotropin as criteria for the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy?, Fertility and Sterility, 72, 643-645, 1999Wrong test - does not report diagnostic accuracy of serial serum hCG measurements
Ozates,B., Caglar,G.S., Kalyoncu,S., Yildiz,Y., Aktan,A., Mollamahmutoglu,L., The assessment of anticardiolipin antibodies in ectopic pregnancies, Gazzetta Medica Italiana Archivio per le Scienze Mediche, 165, 221-225, 2006Wrong population - women are presenting for an elective abortion, not due to pain and bleeding. Diagnostic accuracy measures are reported for IgM only.
Pittaway,D.E., Wentz,A.C., Maxson,W.S., Herbert,C., Daniell,J., Fleischer,A.C., The efficacy of early pregnancy monitoring with serial chorionic gonadotropin determinations and real-time sonography in an infertility population, Fertility and Sterility, 44, 190-194, 1985Wrong population - women were asymptomatic
Plante,B.J., Blume,J.D., Lambert-Messerlian,G., Shackelton,R., Canick,J., Phipps,M.G., A multiple marker model to predict pregnancy viability when progesterone is indeterminate, Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 53, 243-249, 2008Wrong test - this paper reports diagnostic accuracy of hCG level, not the rate of change of hCG.
Popp,L.W., Colditz,A., Gaetje,R., Diagnosis of intrauterine and ectopic pregnancy at 5-7 postmenstrual weeks, International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, 44, 33-38, 1994Wrong test - evaluates hCG levels, not the rate of change of hCG
Rode,L., Daugaard,G., Fenger,M., Hilsted,L., Krag,MollerL, Raaberg,L., Ottesen,B., Serum-hCG: Still a problematic marker, Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 82, -200, 2003This paper is a case report of two patients, not a diagnostic accuracy study
Romero,R., Kadar,N., Copel,J.A., Jeanty,P., DeCherney,A.H., Hobbins,J.C., The value of serial human chorionic gonadotropin testing as a diagnostic tool in ectopic pregnancy, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 155, 392-394, 1986Case-control study including only ectopic pregnancies and viable intrauterine gestations, therefore the study participants do not match the presenting population for the review question
Santiago-San,JuanF, Casals,M.E., Karunungan,E., Mochizuki,M., The use of human chorionic gonadotropin and ultrasound in the early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy: A prospective study, ICMR Annals, 7, -250, 1987Wrong test - this study uses a urinary hCG test
Sauer,M.V., Anderson,R.E., Vermesh,M., Stone,B.A., Paulson,R.J., Spontaneously resorbing ectopic pregnancy: preservation of human chorionic gonadotropin bioactivity despite declining steroid hormone levels, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 161, 1673-1676, 1989No relevant reported outcomes - reports means only, no measures of diagnostic accuracy
Schmidt,T., Rein,D.T., Foth,D., Eibach,H.W., Kurbacher,C.M., Mallmann,P., Romer,T., Prognostic value of repeated serum CA 125 measurements in first trimester pregnancy, European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology, 97, 168-173, 2001No relevant outcomes - reports means only
Schutten,B.T., Bagger,P.V., Monberg,J., Vesth,N., Two highly sensitive methods of HCG determination in women with subacute ectopic pregnancy, Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 66, 267-268, 1987Wrong comparison - this is comparing qualitative results of two different hCG tests, not the diagnostic accuracy of serial measurements
Shaunik,A., Kulp,J., Appleby,D.H., Sammel,M.D., Barnhart,K.T., Utility of dilation and curettage in the diagnosis of pregnancy of unknown location, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 204, 130-130, 2011Study population does not match the presenting population for this review, because only non-viable PULs are included
Spitzer,M., Pinto,A.B.M., Dasgupta,R., Benjamin,F., Early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy: Can we do it accurately using a biochemical profile?, Journal of Women's Health and Gender-Based Medicine, 9, 537-Based, 2000Wrong test - diagnostic accuracy is only reported for CPK/progesterone ratio
Stabile,I., Campbell,S., Grudzinskas,J.G., Ultrasound and circulating placental protein measurements in complications of early pregnancy, British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 96, 1182-1191, 1989Wrong test - reports diagnostic accuracy of hCG level not rate of change
Sterzik,K., Rosenbusch,B., Benz,R., Serum specific protein 1 and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin concentrations in patients with suspected ectopic pregnancies, International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, 28, 253-256, 1989Wrong test - single measurement of hCG and progesterone
Thorburn,J., Bryman,I., Hahlin,M., Lindblom,B., Differential diagnosis of early human pregnancies: impact of different diagnostic measures, Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation, 33, 216-220, 1992No false negatives - in 29/54 participants receiving a dilation and curettage, the diagnosis was not miscarriage; therefore the authors did not diagnosis miscarriage with the gold standard, and hence may have terminated viable intrauterine pregnancies inadvertently.
Valley,V.T., Mateer,J.R., Aiman,E.J., Thoma,M.E., Phelan,M.B., Serum progesterone and endovaginal sonography by emergency physicians in the evaluation of ectopic pregnancy, Academic Emergency Medicine, 5, 309-313, 1998Wrong test - reports diagnostic accuracy of progesterone only
Weckstein,L.N., Boucher,A.R., Tucker,H., Gibson,D., Rettenmaier,M.A., Accurate diagnosis of early ectopic pregnancy, Obstetrics and Gynecology, 65, 393-397, 1985Wrong test - not serial or quantitative hCG
Weerasinghe,D.S.L., Strand,L., Cooke,R., Flower,J., Hutton,J.D., A sensitive qualitative pregnancy test (ICON) and ultrasound in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy, New Zealand Medical Journal, 102, 549-551, 1989Wrong test - single qualitative hCG assay
Westergaard,J.G., Teisner,B., Sinosich,M.J., Madsen,L.T., Grudzinskas,J.G., Does ultrasound examination render biochemical tests obsolete in the prediction of early pregnancy failure?, British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 92, 77-83, 1985Wrong test - diagnostic accuracy is not reported for the change in hCG, only for single levels
Zakut,H., Achiron,R., Schejter,E., Ectopic pregnancy management by a non invasive protocol, Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics and Gynecology, 12, 3-8, 1985Wrong test - does not assess the rate of change of hCG

From: Appendix G, Excluded studies

Cover of Ectopic Pregnancy and Miscarriage
Ectopic Pregnancy and Miscarriage: Diagnosis and Initial Management in Early Pregnancy of Ectopic Pregnancy and Miscarriage.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 154.
National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).
London: RCOG; 2012 Dec.
Copyright © 2012, National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health.

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