Table 19Strength of evidence for Key Question 1: school-based interventions

InterventionNumber of Studies; Subjects (Analyzed)OutcomeRisk of BiasConsistencyDirectnessPrecisionMagnitude of Effect and Strength of Evidence
ERASE Stress vs. wait-list control2; 273 (273)PTSD diagnosisRCT
Medium
UnknownDirectPreciseSignificantly greater decrease in proportion with PTSD diagnosis in ERASE Stress group in one study (24.7% greater decrease); second study significance not reported (11.3% greater decrease in proportion in ERASE Stress group)

Low
2; 273 (273)PTSD severityRCT
Medium
UnknownDirectPreciseSignificantly greater decrease in PTSD symptom severity in both studies (mean differences of 7.21, 9.0)

Low
2; 273 (273)Depression symptomsRCT
Medium
ConsistentDirectPreciseSignificantly greater decrease in depression symptoms in both studies (mean differences of 1.55,1.8)

Low
2; 273 (273)Somatic complaintsRCT
Medium
ConsistentDirectPreciseSignificantly greater decrease in somatic complaints in both studies (mean differences of 1.01, unknown magnitude in second study)

Low
2; 273 (273)Functional impairmentRCT
Medium
ConsistentDirectPreciseSignificantly greater decrease in functional impairment in both studies (mean differences of 2.45, 2.0)

Low
Overshadowing the Threat of Terrorism vs. wait-list control1; 142 (142)PTSD symptomsRCT
Medium
UnknownDirectPreciseSignificantly greater decrease in PTSD symptoms (mean difference of 4.6)

Low
1; 142 (142)PTSD severityRCT
Medium
UnknownDirectPreciseSignificantly greater decrease in PTSD severity (mean difference of 12.1)

Low
1; 142 (142)PTSD diagnosisRCT
Medium
UnknownDirectImpreciseUnknown difference in PTSD diagnosis reduction between baseline and followup between groups (difference in proportions of 8.6% favoring treatment group)

Insufficient
1; 142 (142)Generalized anxiety symptomsRCT
Medium
UnknownDirectPreciseSignificantly greater decrease in generalized anxiety symptoms (mean difference of 2.8)

Low
1; 142 (142)Separation anxiety symptomsRCT
Medium
UnknownDirectPreciseSignificantly greater decrease in separation anxiety symptoms (mean difference of 2.4)

Low
1; 142 (142)Somatic complaintsRCT
Medium
UnknownDirectPreciseSignificantly greater decrease in somatic complaints (mean difference of 1.1)

Low
1; 142 (142)Functional impairmentRCT
Medium
UnknownDirectPreciseSignificantly greater decrease in functional impairment (mean difference of 1.8)

Low

ERASE Stress = Enhancing Resiliency among Students Experiencing Stress; PTSD = post-traumatic stress disorder; RCT = randomized controlled trial

From: Results

Cover of Child and Adolescent Exposure to Trauma
Child and Adolescent Exposure to Trauma: Comparative Effectiveness of Interventions Addressing Trauma Other Than Maltreatment or Family Violence [Internet].
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 107.
Forman-Hoffman V, Knauer S, McKeeman J, et al.

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