This figure depicts the two key questions (KQs) within the context of the PICOTS. For KQ 1, the figure shows that there are several instruments that can be used to evaluate the baseline status of patients with chroniccough, as well as used to measure any potential benefits from treatment. KQ 1 considers the diagnostic accuracy of the instruments (including sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, reliability, responsiveness, feasibility, and validity) as well as the therapeutic efficacy (change in clinical practice, impact on patient and provider decisionmaking) and patient outcome efficacy (acceptability, health-related quality of life, chest pain, depression, and anxiety). For KQ 2, the figure shows how antitussive therapies, protussive therapies, and nonpharmacologic therapies for patients with chroniccough may impact patient and health care utilization outcomes. These outcomes include cough symptoms, severity, and frequency; complications related to coughing; patient functional status; health-related quality of life; and health care utilization and related costs. Further, the figure shows that potential harms of therapies (including sleep disturbance, allergic reactions, drowsiness, headache, chest pain, dizziness, and rash) will be assessed along with potential benefits.

Figure 1Analytic framework

ACE = angiotensin-converting enzyme; GERD = gastroesophageal reflux disease; HRQOL = health-related quality of life; KQ = Key Question; NPV = negative predictive value; PPV = positive predictive value

From: Introduction

Cover of Assessment and Management of Chronic Cough
Assessment and Management of Chronic Cough [Internet].
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 100.
McCrory DC, Coeytaux RR, Yancy WS Jr, et al.

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