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Table K.7.13Evidence profile for electrical stimulation compared with palpation as guidance techniques for botulinum toxin type A administration; tone and joint movement assessment

Quality assessmentSummary of findings
No. of patientsEffectQuality
No. of studiesDesignLimitationsInconsistencyIndirectnessImprecisionOther considerationsElectrical stimulation and physiotherapyPalpation and physiotherapyRelative

(95% CI)
Absolute
Change in Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) score at 3 months from baseline (Better indicated by lower values)
1 study (Xu 2009)randomised trialsno serious limitationsno serious inconsistencyno serious indirectnessserious1none232223-MD = 0.5 (0.74 to 0.26) lower*Moderate
Change in passive range of movement (PROM) at 3 months from baseline, degrees (Better indicated by higher values)
1 study (Xu 2009)randomised trialsno serious limitationsno serious inconsistencyno serious indirectnessserious1none234225-MD = 3.8 (0.79 to 6.81) higher*Moderate

CI confidence interval, MD mean difference

*

Calculated by the NCC-WCH

1

Total population less than 400, 95% confidence interval for mean difference does not cross null hypothesis but is wide

2

Mean change ± SD = -1.9 ± 0.3

3

Mean change ± SD = -1.4 ± 0.5

4

Mean change ± SD = 20.0 ± 5.2

5

Mean change ± SD = 16.2 ± 5.1

Calculated by the NCC-WCH

Total population less than 400, 95% confidence interval for mean difference does not cross null hypothesis but is wide

Mean change ± SD = -1.9 ± 0.3

Mean change ± SD = -1.4 ± 0.5

Mean change ± SD = 20.0 ± 5.2

Mean change ± SD = 16.2 ± 5.1

From: Appendix K, GRADE tables

Cover of Spasticity in Children and Young People with Non-Progressive Brain Disorders
Spasticity in Children and Young People with Non-Progressive Brain Disorders: Management of Spasticity and Co-Existing Motor Disorders and Their Early Musculoskeletal Complications.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 145.
National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).
London: RCOG Press; 2012 Jul.
Copyright © 2012, National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health.

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