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Figure 21 displays a forest plot of studies reporting change in pain intensity using the Visual Analogue Scale, opioids vs. placebo. Three studies reported pain intensity. The two studies that significantly favored opioids were using pethidine and nalbuphine. The overall pooled estimate favored opioids when compared to placebo (MD = −16.73; 95% CI: −24.12, −9.33; I2 = 0%).

Figure 21Pain intensity (VAS) in trials comparing opioids and placebo

VAS = visual analogue scale

From: Results

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