Table 25Alternative statistical presentations for communicating risk

ComparisonOutcomeNo. of studiesOverall results (pooled SMD and 95% CI)No. of points difference on 10-point Likert scaleP valueHeterogeneityQuality of evidenceSubgroup: consumers (pooled SMD and 95% CI)Subgroup: health professionals (pooled SMD and 95% CI)Sensitivity analysis
a) Natural frequencies vs. probabilitiesUnderstanding50.69 (0.45 to 0.93) in favour of natural frequencies1.4p=0.11I2=43%,Moderate0.60 (0.31 to 0.88)0.94 (0.53 to 1.34)none
b) RRR vs. ARRUnderstanding20.02 (−0.39 to +0.43) NS all consumers<0.1p<0.007I2=80%,Moderateall consumers: 0.02 (−0.39 to +0.43) NSnone1 high quality study: SMD 0.33 (0.03 to 0.62) in favour of RRR
Perception40.41 (0.03 to 0.79) in favour of RRR perceived as larger0.8p<0.00001I2=89%,Low0.44 (−0.68 to +1.57)0.39 (−0.04 to +0.82)2 high quality comparisons: SMD 0.42 (−0.34 to +1.19)
Persuasiveness230.66 (0.51 to 0.81) in favour of RRR1.3p<0.00001I2=93%,Moderate0.62 (0.42 to 0.83)0.71 (0.49 to 0.93)4 high quality comparisons: 0.67 (0.57 to 0.76)
c) RRR vs. NNTUnderstanding1all consumers: 0.73 (0.43 to 1.04) in favour of RRR1.5NANAModerateall consumers: 0.73 (0.43 to 1.04)nonenone
Perception3all health professionals: 1.15 (0.80 to 1.50) in favour of RRR2.3p=0.004I2=82%,Moderatenoneall health professionals: 1.15 (0.80 to 1.50)none
Persuasiveness210.65 (0.51 to 0.80) in favour of RRR1.3p<0.00001I2=91%,Moderate0.66 (0.46 to 0.86)0.65 (0.42 to 0.87)3 high quality comparisons: 0.62 (0.46 to 0.78)
d) ARR vs. NNTUnderstanding1all consumers 0.42 (0.12 to 0.71) in favour of ARR0.8NANAModerateall consumers 0.42 (0.12 to 0.71)nonenone
Perception3all health professionals: 0.79 (0.43 to 1.15) in favour of ARR1.6p=0.002I2=84%,Moderatenoneall health professionals: 0.79 (0.43 to 1.15)none
Persuasiveness190.05 (−0.04 to +0.15)0.1p<0.00001I2=75%,Moderate0.05 (−0.04 to +0.14)0.07 (−0.10 to +0.24)8 high quality comparisons: 0.06 (−0.06 to +0.17)

From: 10, Enabling patients to actively participate in their care

Cover of Patient Experience in Adult NHS Services: Improving the Experience of Care for People Using Adult NHS Services
Patient Experience in Adult NHS Services: Improving the Experience of Care for People Using Adult NHS Services: Patient Experience in Generic Terms.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 138.
National Clinical Guideline Centre (UK).
Copyright © 2012, National Clinical Guideline Centre.

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