PubMed Health. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

Golden SH, Brown T, Yeh HC, et al. Methods for Insulin Delivery and Glucose Monitoring: Comparative Effectiveness [Internet]. Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2012 Jul. (Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 57.)

Appendix DList of Excluded Articles

  1. Abaci A, Atas A, Unuvar T, Demir K, Bober E, Buyukgebiz A. A comparison of multiple daily insulin therapy with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a single-center experience from Turkey. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2009;22(6):539–45. [PubMed: 19694201]

    No concurrent comparison group

  2. Adamson U, Lins PE. [Insulin pump--25 years old and with a future. It counteracts development of late diabetic complications]. Lakartidningen. 2002;99(51-52):5168–70. [PubMed: 12572311]

    Other reason

  3. Ahmann A, Buse JB, Berganstal RM, Tanenberg R. HbA1c and sensor use in adults during a 1-year randomised controlled trial comparing sensor-augmented pump therapy and multiple daily injection therapy. Diabetologia. 2010;53:S401.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  4. Akhmedova ND, Akbarov ZS, Turakulov IaKh. [Effect of long-term subcutaneous infusion of insulin using an attached drug dosing device on indices of hemocoagulation in type I diabetes mellitus]. Probl Endokrinol (Mosk) 1988;34(5):7–11. [PubMed: 3217395]

    No outcome of interest

  5. Albin F, Dazet D, Haardt MJ. [Placing of an insulin pump. Subcutaneous route]. Soins. 85;(459-460):III–IV. [PubMed: 3854526]

    No original data

  6. Albisser AM, Zinman B. Insulin dependent diabetes and the artificial pancreas. Med Prog Technol. 82;9(03-Feb):113–8. [PubMed: 6761571]

    No original data

  7. Alemzadeh R, Ellis JN, Holzum MK, Parton EA, Wyatt DT. Beneficial effects of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and flexible multiple daily insulin regimen using insulin glargine in type 1 diabetes. Pediatrics. 2004;114(1):e91–5. [PubMed: 15231979]

    Observational study that does not report on macrovascular, microvascular, maternal, or fetal outcomes

  8. Alemzadeh R, Loppnow C, Parton E, Kirby M. Glucose sensor evaluation of glycemic instability in pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2003;5(2):167–73. [PubMed: 12871606]

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  9. Alemzadeh R, Palma-Sisto P, Parton EA, Holzum MK. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and multiple dose of insulin regimen display similar patterns of blood glucose excursions in pediatric type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2005;7(4):587–96. [PubMed: 16120030]

    Observational study that does not report on macrovascular, microvascular, maternal, or fetal outcomes

  10. Allen NA. Continuous glucose monitoring improved glucose control in adults but not in young adults or children with type 1 diabetes. Evid Based Nurs. 2009;12(2):44. [PubMed: 19321821]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  11. Allen NA, Fain JA, Braun B, Chipkin SR. Continuous glucose monitoring counseling improves physical activity behaviors of individuals with type 2 diabetes: A randomized clinical trial. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008;80(3):371–9. [PMC free article: PMC2430041] [PubMed: 18304674]

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  12. Allouche C, Barjot P, Six T, Muller G, Levy G. [Insulin dependent diabetes and pregnancy: evaluation of the insulin pump]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris) 94;23(6):706–11. [PubMed: 7995917]

    No outcome of interest

  13. Altaf K, Adu J, Morrison GM, Nunes Q, Halloran C, Neoptolemos JP, Weston CP, Sutton R. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy for management of apancreatic diabetes mellitus. Pancreas. 2010;39(8):1307.

    Other reason

  14. Alvarez MG, Donlo IC. [Cost-utility of insulin pumps in the treatment of type 1 diabetes in Spain. When most expensive is best (or not)]. Coste-utilidad de las bombas de insulina en el tratamiento de la diabetes tipo 1 en Espana. Cuando lo mas caro puede ser lo mejor (o no) Endocrinol. Nutr. 2007;54(2):73–75.

    No original data

  15. Amemiya S, Kato K, Asayama K. The improved response in endogenous insulin due to continuous subcutaneous infusion of insulin therapy in juvenile diabetes. Tohoku J Exp Med. 83;141(Suppl):713–7. [PubMed: 6393445]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  16. Anderson DG. Multiple daily injections in young patients using the ezy-BICC bolus insulin calculation card, compared to mixed insulin and CSII. Pediatr Diabetes. 2009;10(5):304–9. [PubMed: 19076301]

    Does not apply to a key question

  17. Anon. [Continuous blood glucose values. Monitoring around the clock]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2002;144(50):68–9. [PubMed: 14610879]

    No original data

  18. Anon. [Report from experience: diabetics in the hospital]. Pflege Z. 99;52(10):693. [PubMed: 10614462]

    No original data

  19. Anon. Acute mishaps during insulin pump treatment. Lancet. 85;1(8434):911–2. [PubMed: 2858751]

    No original data

  20. Anon. Blood glucose control and the evolution of diabetic retinopathy and albuminuria. A preliminary multicenter trial. The Kroc Collaborative Study Group. N Engl J Med. 84;311(6):365–72. [PubMed: 6377076]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  21. Anon. Collaborative studies of the effects of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Conclusions. The Kroc Collaborative Study Group. Diabetes. 85;34 Suppl 3:87–9. [PubMed: 3894131]

    No original data

  22. Anon. Diabetic retinopathy after two years of intensified insulin treatment. Follow-up of the Kroc Collaborative Study. The Kroc Collaborative Study Group. JAMA. 88;260(1):37–41. [PubMed: 2898025]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  23. Anon. EASD Study Group Artificial Insulin Delivery Systems Pancreas and Islet Transplantation (AIDSPIT). Report of the 13th Workshop of the EASD Study Group AIDSPIT. Diabetologia. 94;37(8):suppl 33–7. [PubMed: 7988772]

    No original data

  24. Anon. Effect of 6 months of strict metabolic control on eye and kidney function in insulin-dependent diabetics with background retinopathy. Steno study group. Lancet. 82;1(8264):121–4. [PubMed: 6119509]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  25. Anon. Effectiveness of sensor-augmented insulin-pump therapy in type 1 diabetes. New Engl. J. Med. 2010;363(11):1092. (The New England Journal of Medicine (2010) 363, (311-20)) [PubMed: 20587585]

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  26. Anon. Implementation of treatment protocols in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. Diabetes Care. 95;18(3):361–76.

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  27. Anon. Influence of intensive diabetes treatment on body weight and composition of adults with type 1 diabetes in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. Diabetes Care. 2001;24(10):1711–21. [PMC free article: PMC2663516] [PubMed: 11574431]

    Does not apply to a key question

  28. Anon. Insulin pump therapy and serum amyloid A. Lancet. 84;1(8381):853–4. [PubMed: 6143168]

    No original data

  29. Anon. Long-term therapy with insulin pumps assessed. PHARM. PRACT. NEWS. 85;12(11):12.

    No concurrent comparison group

  30. Anon. Progression of retinopathy with intensive versus conventional treatment in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. Ophthalmology. 95;102(4):647–61. [PubMed: 7724182]

    Not in an outpatient setting

  31. Anon. Psychological aspects of continuous glucose monitoring in pediatric type 1 diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes. 2006;7(1):32–8. [PMC free article: PMC1382284] [PubMed: 16489972]

    Other reason

  32. Anon. Quality-of-life measures in children and adults with type 1 diabetes: Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Continuous Glucose Monitoring randomized trial. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(12):2725. (Diabetes Care (2010) 33, (2175-2177)) [PMC free article: PMC2945155] [PubMed: 20696865]

    Other reason

  33. Anon. Risk of hypoglycaemia in types 1 and 2 diabetes: effects of treatment modalities and their duration. Diabetologia. 2007;50(6):1140–7. [PubMed: 17415551]

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  34. Anon. Strict metabolic control and eye and kidney function in diabetes. Lancet. 82;1(8272):630–1. [PubMed: 6121219]

    No original data

  35. Anon. The effect of intensive diabetes therapy on the development and progression of neuropathy. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial Research Group. Ann Intern Med. 95;122(8):561–8. [PubMed: 7887548]

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  36. Anon. Update: deaths among patients using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pumps--United States. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 82;31(46):625–6. [PubMed: 6817073]

    No original data

  37. Arias P, Kerner W, de la Fuente A, Pfeiffer EF. Abnormal growth hormone levels in insulin-dependent diabetic patients under continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and intensified conventional treatment. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 84;107(2):250–5. [PubMed: 6388208]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  38. Arias P, Kerner W, Zier H, Navascues I, Pfeiffer EF. Incidence of hypoglycemic episodes in diabetic patients under continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and intensified conventional insulin treatment: assessment by means of semiambulatory 24-hour continuous blood glucose monitoring. Diabetes Care. 85;8(2):134–40. [PubMed: 3888562]

    Less than 24 hours of usage

  39. Arlot S, Lalau JD, Mesmacque A, Quichaud J. [Remission of recently-appearing insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: value of continuous infusion of insulin]. LARC Med. 84;4(8):475–8. [PubMed: 6513704]

    No original data

  40. Aucott SW, Williams TG, Hertz RH, Kalhan SC. Rigorous management of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus during pregnancy. Acta Diabetol. 94;31(3):126–9. [PubMed: 7827348]

    No formal diagnosis

  41. Bak JF, Nielsen OH, Pedersen O, Beck-Nielsen H. Multiple insulin injections using a pen injector versus insulin pump treatment in young diabetic patients. Diabetes Res. 87;6(3):155–8. [PubMed: 3325220]

    No concurrent comparison group

  42. Barbosa J, Johnson S. Severe hypoglycemia during maximized insulin treatment of diabetes in a randomized clinical trial. Diabetes Care. 83;6(1):62–3. [PubMed: 6341017]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  43. Barbosa J. Treatment with insulin pumps is no better than intensive conventional treatment. BR. MED. J. 84;288(6436):51.

    No original data

  44. Barnard KD, Skinner TC. Cross-sectional study into quality of life issues surrounding insulin pump use in type 1 diabetes. Pract. Diabetes Int. 2008;25(5):194–200.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  45. Bastiaensen L. Effect of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion on retinopathy. Br J Ophthalmol. 83;67(7):491–2. [PMC free article: PMC1040102] [PubMed: 6344916]

    No original data

  46. Baum CR. “Toxic shock:” can playground static cause insulin pump failure? Ann Emerg Med. 2007;49(1):113. [PubMed: 17197296]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  47. Beau P, Marechaud R, Matuchansky C. Cyclic total parenteral nutrition, diabetes mellitus, and subcutaneous insulin pump. Lancet. 86;1(8492):1272–3. [PubMed: 2872412]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  48. Beck RW, Hirsch IB, Laffel L, Tamborlane WV, Bode BW, Buckingham B, Chase HP, Clemons R, Fiallo-Scharer R, Fox LA, Gilliam LK, Huang ES, Kollman C, Kowalski AJ, Lawrence JM, Lee J, Mauras N, O'Grady M., Juvenile diabetes research foundation continuous glucose monitoring study group. The effect of continuous glucose monitoring in well-controlled type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(10):1944. (Diabetes Care (2009) 32, (1378-1383)) [PMC free article: PMC2713649] [PubMed: 19429875]

    Other reason

  49. Beck RW, Weinzimer S, Miller K, Beck R, Xing D, Fiallo-Scharer R, Gilliam LK, Kollman C, Laffel L, Mauras N, Ruedy K, Tamborlane W, Tsalikian E. Effectiveness of continuous glucose monitoring in a clinical care environment: Evidence from the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation Continuous Glucose Monitoring (JDRF-CGM) trial. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(1):17–22. [PMC free article: PMC2797966] [PubMed: 19837791]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  50. Becker DI. Pediatric use of insulin pumps: longer infusion site lifetime with NovoLog. Diabetes Care. 2002;25(9):1663. [PubMed: 12196450]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  51. Beck-Nielsen H, Olesen T, Mogensen CE, Richelsen B, Olsen HW, Ehlers N, Charles P, Sorensen NS. Effect of near normoglycemia for 5 years on progression of early diabetic retinopathy and renal involvement. Diabetes Res. 90;15(4):185–90. [PubMed: 2132407]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  52. Beck-Nielsen H, Richelsen B, Mogensen CE, Olsen T, Ehlers N, Nielsen CB, Charles P. Effect of insulin pump treatment for one year on renal function and retinal morphology in patients with IDDM. Diabetes Care. 85;8(6):585–9. [PubMed: 4075944]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  53. Beck-Nielsen H, Richelsen B, Schwartz Sorensen N, Hother Nielsen O. Insulin pump treatment: effect on glucose homeostasis, metabolites, hormones, insulin antibodies and quality of life. Diabetes Res. 85;2(1):37–43. [PubMed: 3888495]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  54. Behme MT, Dupre J. Insulin-binding to erythrocytes in type I diabetes mellitus: effects of continuous subcutaneous infusion of insulin. Clin Invest Med. 84;7(2):109–14. [PubMed: 6380857]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  55. Belicar P, Lassmann-Vague V. Local adverse events associated with long-term treatment by implantable insulin pumps. The French EVADIAC Study Group experience. Evaluation dans le Diabete du Traitement par Implants Actifs. Diabetes Care. 98;21(2):325–6. [PubMed: 9540008]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  56. Belicar P, Lassman-Vague V, Gin H, Catargi B, Charpentier G, Deburge A, Brun JM, Pacaud-Brun A, Rocher-Mingret L, Gilly F, Vague P, Bringer J, Renard E, Drouin P, Guerci B, Meyer L, Slama G, Selam JL, Haardt MJ. Local adverse events associated with long-term treatment by implantable insulin pumps. Diabetes Care. 98;21(2):325–326. [2]

    No concurrent comparison group

  57. Bell PM, Hayes JR, Hadden DR. A comparison of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and conventional therapy in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) Ir-J-Med-Sci. 84;153(3):116. [abstract]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  58. Bell PM, Hayes JR, Hadden DR, Archer DB. The effect of plasma glucose control by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion or conventional therapy on retinal morphology and urinary albumin excretion. Diabete Metab. 85;11(4):254–61. [PubMed: 3899766]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  59. Bell PM, Sawhney B, Hayes JR, Hadden DR. Effect of plasma glucose control by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion on nerve conduction. Ir J Med Sci. 85;154(10):378–84. [PubMed: 4077452]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  60. Bending JJ, Pickup JC, Keen H. Frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis and hypoglycemic coma during treatment with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Audit of medical care. Am J Med. 85;79(6):685–91. [PubMed: 3934967]

    No original data

  61. Bending JJ, Pickup JC, Keen H. Treatment with insulin pumps versus intensive conventional treatment. BR. MED. J. 84;289(644 O):320–321.

    No original data

  62. Bergenstal RM, Morse P, Rubenstein AH, Bending JJ, Bilous RW, Keen H, Pickup JC, Viberti GC, Gosh G, Kohner EM, Lawson PM, Rizza RA, Service FJ, Trautmann JC, Canny CCB, Champion MC, Dupre JR. Diabetic retinopathy after two years of intensified insulin treatment. Follow-up of the Kroc Collaborative Study. J. AM. MED. ASSOC. 88;260(1):37–41.

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  63. Berger M, Sonnenberg E, Chantelau EA, Best F. [Treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes by continuous sub-cutaneous insulin perfusion]. Journ Annu Diabetol Hotel Dieu. 84:175–82. [PubMed: 6443218]

    Other reason

  64. Berger M, Sonnenberg G, Chantelau EA. Steno Study Group trial of continuous subcutaneous insulin. Lancet. 82;1(8276):860. [PubMed: 6122090]

    No original data

  65. Berger W, Keller U, Straumann M, Clerc D, Fried M. [Long-term use of portable insulin pumps to stabilize metabolism in labile diabetics and for euglycemic blood sugar regulation in pregnancy]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 83;113(18):679–88. [PubMed: 6408732]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  66. Berghaeuser MA, Kapellen T, Heidtmann B, Haberland H, Klinkert C, Holl RW. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in toddlers starting at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus. A multicenter analysis of 104 patients from 63 centres in Germany and Austria. Pediatr Diabetes. 2008;9(6):590–5. [PubMed: 18503495]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  67. Bergis KH. [Patients' experiences with insulin lispro in daily use. Yesterday's innovation--today's standard therapy]. Krankenpfl J. 99;37(9):347–9. [PubMed: 10542572]

    No original data

  68. Bergis K, Otto K, Mann M. [Painful polyneuropathy in type I diabetes: intermediate insulin-pump therapy]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 86;111(12):477–8. [PubMed: 3948715]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  69. Bergman M, Felig P. Newer approaches to the control of the insulin-dependent diabetic patient. Dis Mon. 1983;29(7):1, 65. [PubMed: 6403321]

    No original data

  70. Bergua M, Levy I, Casamitjana R, Figuerola D. [Therapeutic hyperinsulinism induced by the use of continuous insulin infusion pumps and the artificial pancreas in diabetic patients]. Med Clin (Barc) 83;81(6):243–5. [PubMed: 6358714]

    Other reason

  71. Berkeley J, Lunt H, Frampton C. Efficacy of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in patients with classical contraindications to its use. Diabet Med. 2007;24(12):1496–7. [PubMed: 17976206]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  72. Bernsmeier H, Sonnenberg GE. [Diabetic retinopathy with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy (insulin pump)]. Fortschr Ophthalmol. 84;81(3):267–70. [PubMed: 6479784]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  73. Bernsmeier H, Cicmir I, Koschinski T, Gries FA. [Comparison of the development of retinopathy in treatment with the insulin pump and intensified conventional therapy]. Fortschr Ophthalmol. 86;83(4):467–70. [PubMed: 3770622]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  74. Berthe E, Lireux B, Coffin C, Goulet-Salmon B, Houlbert D, Boutreux S, Fradin S, Reznik Y. Effectiveness of intensive insulin therapy by multiple daily injections and continuous subcutaneous infusion: a comparison study in type 2 diabetes with conventional insulin regimen failure. Horm Metab Res. 2007;39(3):224–9. [PubMed: 17373639]

    Other reason

  75. Bibergeil H, Huttl I, Felsing W, Felsing U, Seidlein I, Herfurth S, Dabels J, Reichel G, Luder C, Albrecht G, et al. 36 months continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in insulin dependent diabetes (IDDM)--influence on early stages of retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy--psychological analysis. Exp Clin Endocrinol. 87;90(1):51–61. [PubMed: 3666060]

    No concurrent comparison group

  76. Biesenbach G, Grafinger P, Kaiser W, Stuby U, Zazgornik J. [Metabolic control in labile type I diabetes with conventional insulin therapy, basal bolus insulin therapy using pens and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion with the pump]. Med Klin (Munich) 88;83(12):398–401. [PubMed: 3043159]

    No concurrent comparison group

  77. Bin-Abbas BS. Insulin pump therapy during Ramadan fasting in type 1 diabetic adolescents. Ann Saudi Med. 2008;28(4):305–6. [PubMed: 18596395]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  78. Bin-Abbas BS, Al-Fares A, Sakati NA, Al-Ashwal AA. Comparison of insulin pump and multiple daily injection regimens in type 1 diabetic patients. Curr. Paediatr. Res. 2006;10(02-Jan):37–39.

    Other reason

  79. Bin-Abbas BS, Sakati NA, Al-Ashwal AA. Glycemic control and treatment satisfaction in Saudi diabetic children on insulin pump therapy. Ann. Saudi Med. 2006;26(3):247–248. [5] [PubMed: 16861872]

    No concurrent comparison group

  80. Bin-Abbas BS, Sakati NA, Al-Ashwal AA. Glycemic control and treatment satisfaction in Saudi diabetic children on insulin pump therapy. Ann Saudi Med. 2006;26(5):405. [PubMed: 17120382]

    No concurrent comparison group

  81. Birman P. [Conventional insulin therapy, infusion pumps, injector syringes. Different methods of administration]. Soins. 89;(524):30–5. [PubMed: 2665113]

    No original data

  82. Blackett PR. Insulin pump treatment for recurrent ketoacidosis in adolescence. Diabetes Care. 95;18(6):881–2. [PubMed: 7555520]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  83. Bloomgarden ZT. Aspects of insulin treatment. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(1):e1–6. [PMC free article: PMC2797996] [PubMed: 20040659]

    No original data

  84. Bode BW. Clinical utility of the continuous glucose monitoring system. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2000;2 Suppl 1:S35–41. [PubMed: 11469630]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  85. Boizel R, Benhamou PY, Renard E. Glucose monitoring and pump data management software operated on a personal digital assistant can contribute to improve diabetes control in CSII-treated patients. Diabetes Metab. 2007;33(4):314–5. [PubMed: 17475533]

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  86. Boland E. A flexible option for adolescents with diabetes. Insulin pump therapy. Adv Nurse Pract. 98;6(2):38–44. [PubMed: 9555281]

    No original data

  87. Boland EA, Tamborlane WV. Continuous glucose monitoring in youth with type 2 diabetes: overcoming barriers to successful treatment. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2000;2 Suppl 1:S53–9. [PubMed: 11469633]

    No original data

  88. Boland EA, Grey M, Oesterle A, Fredrickson L, Tamborlane WV. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. A new way to lower risk of severe hypoglycemia, improve metabolic control, and enhance coping in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 99;22(11):1779–84. [PubMed: 10546007]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  89. Bonfanti R, Meschi F, Viscardi M, Rigamonti A, Biffi V, Frontino G, Battaglino R, Favalli V, Bonura C, Chiumello G. Long-term efficacy of insulin pump therapy in young children with diabetes. Diabetologia. 2010;53:S372.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  90. Borisova AM, Koev D, Kirilov G. [An improvement in insulin efficacy in patients with type-1 diabetes mellitus following treatment using an insulin infusion pump]. Vutr Boles. 89;28(1):74–7. [PubMed: 2662610]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  91. Botta RM, Sinagra D, Angelico MC, Bompiani GD. [Comparison of intensified traditional insulin therapy and micropump therapy in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus]. Minerva Med. 86;77(17):657–61. [PubMed: 3520389]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  92. Bougneres PF. [Are there indications for treatment with the insulin pump in pediatrics?]. Diabete Metab. 85;11(5):320–1. [PubMed: 4076510]

    No original data

  93. Bougneres PF. [Intensive insulin therapy in the diabetic child]. Union Med Can. 85;114(10):821–8. [PubMed: 3909569]

    No original data

  94. Bouhanick B, Biquard F, Hadjadj S, Roques MA. Does treatment with antenatal glucocorticoids for the risk of premature delivery contribute to ketoacidosis in pregnant women with diabetes who receive continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII)? Arch Intern Med. 2000;160(2):242–3. [PubMed: 10647766]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  95. Boulton AJM, Drury J, Ward JD. Treatment of painful and ulcerative diabetic neuropathy by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) DIABETOLOGIA. 81;21(3):67.

    Other reason

  96. Bourgon C. [Subcutaneous insulin pumps]. Soins. 91;(548):29–30. 32–4. [PubMed: 1853235]

    Other reason

  97. Bozzetti V, Viscardi M, Bonfanti R, Azzinari A, Meschi F, Bognetti E, Chiumello G. Results of continuous glucose monitoring by GlucoWatch Biographer in a cohort of diabetic children and adolescents under real-life conditions. Pediatr Diabetes. 2003;4(1):57–8. [PubMed: 14655524]

    No original data

  98. Bradley C. On calculating treatment satisfaction. Diabetes Care. 99;22(10):1760. [PubMed: 10526762]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  99. Bradley C, Gamsu DS, Knight G, Boulton AJ, Ward JD. Predicting risk of diabetic ketoacidosis in patients using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 86;293(6541):242–3. [PMC free article: PMC1341178] [PubMed: 3089472]

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  100. Bragd J, Adamson U, Lins PE, Dobeln AV, Oskarsson P. Basal insulin substitution with glargine or CSII in adult type 1 diabetes patients - A randomized controlled trial. Diabetes. 2009;58 [PubMed: 20687863]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  101. Bragd J, von Dobeln A, Lins PE, Adamson U, Bergstrom J, Oskarsson P. Basal insulin substitution with glargine or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in adult type 1 diabetes patients-a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2010;12(9):689–93. [PubMed: 20687863]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  102. Brange J, Langkjaer L. Insulin formulation and delivery. Pharm Biotechnol. 97;10:343–409. [PubMed: 9160379]

    No original data

  103. Brinchmann-Hansen O, Dahl-Jorgensen K, Hanssen KF, Sandvik L. Effects of intensified insulin treatment on retinal vessels in diabetic patients. Br J Ophthalmol. 88;72(9):666–73. [PMC free article: PMC1041553] [PubMed: 3052571]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  104. Brinchmann-Hansen O, Dahl-Jorgensen K, Hanssen KF, Sandvik L. Effects of intensified insulin treatment on various lesions of diabetic retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 85;100(5):644–53. [PubMed: 3904464]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  105. Brinchmann-Hansen O, Dahl-Jorgensen K, Hanssen KF, Sandvik L. Oscillatory potentials, macular recovery time, and diabetic retinopathy through 3 years of intensified insulin treatment. Ophthalmology. 88;95(10):1358–66. [PubMed: 3067179]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  106. Brinchmann-Hansen O, Dahl-Jorgensen K, Hanssen KF, Sandvik L. The response of diabetic retinopathy to 41 months of multiple insulin injections, insulin pumps, and conventional insulin therapy. Arch Ophthalmol. 88;106(9):1242–6. [PubMed: 3046587]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  107. Brink SJ. Diabetic ketoacidosis: prevention, treatment and complications in children and adolescents. Diabetes Nutr Metab. 99;12(2):122–35. [PubMed: 10554895]

    No original data

  108. Brink SK, Stewart C. Insulin pumps no advantage in young diabetics. CURR. THER. 87;28(7):200.

    No original data

  109. Brunetti P, Bueti A, Antonella MA, Calabrese G, Fabietti PG, Santeusanio F, Massi Benedetti M. Metabolic effects of intensified insulin therapy. Exp Clin Endocrinol. 84;83(2):130–5. [PubMed: 6373314]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  110. Brynes AE, Lee JL, Brighton RE, Leeds AR, Dornhorst A, Frost GS. A low glycemic diet significantly improves the 24-h blood glucose profile in people with type 2 diabetes, as assessed using the continuous glucose MiniMed monitor. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(2):548–9. [PubMed: 12547905]

    No original data

  111. Burkart W, Hanker JP, Schneider HP. Complications and fetal outcome in diabetic pregnancy. Intensified conventional versus insulin pump therapy. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 88;26(2):104–12. [PubMed: 3065158]

    Not in an outpatient setting

  112. Buysschaert M, Lejeune M, Lambert AE. [Treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes by continuous subcutaneous infusion of insulin (author's transl)]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 81;42(3):293–4. [PubMed: 7316465]

    Other reason

  113. Buysschaert M, Lejeune M, Lambert AE. Treatment of juvenile diabetes with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) DIABETOLOGIA. 80;19(3):262.

    Not in an outpatient setting

  114. Buysschaert M, Marchand E, Ketelslegers JM. Comparison of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and intensified conventional insulin therapy (ICII) in type 1 diabetes. DIABETOLOGIA. 81;21(3):84.

    Not in an outpatient setting

  115. C⌠tΘ B, St-Hilaire C. Comparison of the insulin pump and multiple daily injections in intensive therapy for Type 1 diabetes. Montreal, PQ, CAnada: Agence d'evaluation des technologies et des modes d'intervention en sante (AETMIS) 2005

    No original data

  116. Calabrese G, Bueti A, Santeusanio F, Giombolini A, Zega G, Bellomo G, Antonella MA, Angeletti G, Massi-Benedetti M, Brunetti P. Hormonal and metabolic profiles in insulin-dependent diabetics under subcutaneous conventional and artificial endocrine pancreas (glucose continuous insulin infusion system Biostator) treatment. J Endocrinol Invest. 1983;6(1):1–8. [PubMed: 6341441]

    No outcome of interest

  117. Calle Pascual AL, Charro Salgado AL. [Clinical course of advanced microvascular complications in diabetic patients undergoing long-term treatment with the subcutaneous insulin infusion pump]. Med Clin (Barc) 83;81(20):904–7. [PubMed: 6664146]

    Other reason

  118. Cander S, Kiyici S, Deligonul A, Gul OO, Unal OK, Sakalli M, Tuncel E, Imamoglu S. Treatment efficacy of subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy in type 1 diabetic patients: Cilt alti insulin infuzyon tedavisinin tip 1 diyabetik hastalarda tedavi etkinligi. Turk. J. Endocrinol. Metab. 2010;14(4):80–84.

    Other reason

  119. Canny CL, Kohner EM, Trautman J, Puklin J, Morse P. Comparison of stereofundus photographs in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes during conventional insulin treatment or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Diabetes. 85;34 Suppl 3:50–5. [PubMed: 3894128]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  120. Capani F, Consoli A, Vitacolonna E, Sensi S. [Semisynthetic human insulin therapy of type 1 diabetics treated with a microinfusor. Preliminary notes on insulin requirements and antibody titer]. Minerva Endocrinol. 84;9(2):167–71. [PubMed: 6503905]

    Other reason

  121. Carino C, Tiboni GM, Fontana M, De Martiis M. [Modern technologic accomplishments in the therapeutic treatment of diabetes mellitus: the artificial pancreas and micropumps]. Clin Ter. 84;109(2):173–7. [PubMed: 6234127]

    No original data

  122. Carta Q, Meriggi E, Trossarelli GF. Maternal and fetal metabolic control in diabetic pregnant women treated by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) DIABETOLOGIA. 82;23(3):294.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  123. Carta Q, Meriggi E, Trossarelli GF, Catella G, Dal Molin V, Menato G, Gagliardi L, Massobrio M, Vitelli A. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion versus intensive conventional insulin therapy in type I and type II diabetic pregnancy. Diabete Metab. 86;12(3):121–9. [PubMed: 3525266]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  124. Casas-Onate ML, Montoya-Martinez D. [Influence of the treatment with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in the improvement of the quality of life of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus]. Enferm Clin. 2010;20(4):216–21. [PubMed: 20561806]

    Observational study that does not report on macrovascular, microvascular, maternal, or fetal outcomes

  125. Casson IF, Clarke CA, Howard CV, McKendrick O, Pennycook S, Pharoah PO, Platt MJ, Stanisstreet M, van Velszen D, Walkinshaw S. Outcomes of pregnancy in insulin dependent diabetic women: results of a five year population cohort study. BMJ. 97;315(7103):275–8. [PMC free article: PMC2127202] [PubMed: 9274545]

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  126. Castillo MJ, Scheen AJ, Lefebvre PJ. Treatment with insulin infusion pumps and ketoacidotic episodes: from physiology to troubleshooting. Diabetes Metab Rev. 95;11(2):161–77. [PubMed: 7555566]

    Does not apply to a key question

  127. Cavallo MG, Romeo S, Coppolino G, Pozzilli P. Continuous glucose monitoring during the European Soccer cup semifinal, Italy against Holland. Diabetologia. 2001;44(2):268. [PubMed: 11270688]

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  128. Cavallo-Perin P, Pagano G, Tagliaferro V, Jarre P, Ozzello A, Lenti G. The treatment of unstable type I diabetes: conventional versus portable pump insulin administration. Acta Diabetol Lat. 83;20(4):363–70. [PubMed: 6364666]

    No concurrent comparison group

  129. Champion MC, Bending JJ, Rodger NW, Bilous RW. Conference on insulin pump therapy in diabetes. Multicenter study of effect on microvascular disease. Recruitment, Randomization, and baseline characteristics of the treatment groups. Diabetes. 85;34 Suppl 3:13–6. [PubMed: 3926567]

    No outcome of interest

  130. Champion MC, Keen H, Pickup JC, Tamborlane WV, Dupre J. Conference on insulin pump therapy in diabetes. Multicenter study of effect on microvascular disease. Origin and design of the Kroc Collaborative Study. Diabetes. 1985;34 Suppl 3:5–12. [PubMed: 3926569]

    Other reason

  131. Chandler PT, Chandler SA. Outpatient self-management of severe diabetes. South Med J. 81;74(9):1061–4. [PubMed: 7025234]

    Does not apply to a key question

  132. Chantelau E, Wichmann P. Pathological proteinuria in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: relation to intensive insulin therapy. Exp Clin Endocrinol. 92;99(3):164–8. [PubMed: 1526268]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  133. Chantelau E, Schiffers T, Schutze J, Hansen B. Effect of patient-selected intensive insulin therapy on quality of life. Patient Educ Couns. 97;30(2):167–73. [PubMed: 9128618]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  134. Chase HP, Beck RW, Xing D, Tamborlane WV, Coffey J, Fox LA, Ives B, Keady J, Kollman C, Laffel L, Ruedy KJ. Continuous glucose monitoring in youth with type 1 diabetes: 12-month follow-up of the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation continuous glucose monitoring randomized trial. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2010;12(7):507–15. [PubMed: 20597824]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  135. Chase HP, Roberts MD, Wightman C, Klingensmith G, Garg SK, Van Wyhe M, Desai S, Harper W, Lopatin M, Bartkowiak M, Tamada J, Eastman RC. Use of the GlucoWatch biographer in children with type 1 diabetes. Pediatrics. 2003;111(4 Pt 1):790–4. [PubMed: 12671113]

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  136. Chen R, Ben-Haroush A, Weismann-Brenner A, Melamed N, Hod M, Yogev Y. Level of glycemic control and pregnancy outcome in type 1 diabetes: a comparison between multiple daily insulin injections and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusions. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007;197(4):404.e1–5. [PubMed: 17904979]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  137. Chiasson JL, Ducros F, Poliquin-Hamet M, Lopez D, Lecavalier L, Hamet P. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (Mill-Hill Infuser) versus multiple injections (Medi-Jector) in the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and the effect of metabolic control on microangiopathy. Diabetes Care. 84;7(4):331–7. [PubMed: 6381006]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  138. Chiasson JL, Lecavalier L, Ducros F, Hamet P. [The insulin pump as treatment of the insulin-dependent diabetic]. Union Med Can. 85;114(10):837–9. [PubMed: 3909571]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  139. Childs BP. Insulin infusion pumps: new solution to an old problem. Nursing. 83;13(11):54–7. [PubMed: 6355927]

    No original data

  140. Chimenti EM, de la Morena LH, Vaquero PM, Saez-de-Ibarra L, Dominguez MG, Sanchez LF. Assessing glycaemic variability with continuous glucose monitoring system before and after continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in people with Type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010 [PubMed: 20855123]

    No concurrent comparison group

  141. Chobot AP, Deja G, Marcinkowski A, Myrda A, Minkina-Pedras M, Jarosz-Chobot P, Otto-Buczkowska E. [Treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus revealed below 7 years of age in the Diabetes Center of Silesia, Poland]. Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab. 2007;13(2):75–8. [PubMed: 17880811]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  142. Christensen CK, Christiansen JS, Christensen T, Hermansen K, Mogensen CE. The effect of six months continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion on kidney function and size in insulin-dependent diabetics. Diabet Med. 86;3(1):29–32. [PubMed: 2951131]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  143. Christensen CK, Christiansen JS, Schmitz A, Christensen T, Hermansen K, Mogensen CE. Effect of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion on kidney function and size in IDDM patients: a 2 year controlled study. J Diabet Complications. 87;1(3):91–5. [PubMed: 2969912]

    No comparison with placebo or usual car

  144. Clark RB, Seifen AB, Jordan RM. Continuous insulin infusion is preferred method for managing diabetics. Anesthesiology. 82;56(4):332–3. [PubMed: 7039420]

    No original data

  145. Close CF, Collins A, Gregory W, Goodwin A, Hill C, Jarrett RJ, Jones SL, Keen H, Scott GS, Viberti G, Vora H, Yip J, Grenfell A, Sampson MJ, Watkins PJ, Fishwick C, Gatling W, Hill RD, Marshall SM. Coa Predictors of the development of microalbuminuria in patients with type I diabetes mellitus: A seven-year prospective study. Diabetic Med. 99;16(11):918–925.

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  146. Cohen CD. Nocturnal hypoglycemia in patients treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 88;159(2):536–7. [PubMed: 3407716]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  147. Cohen O, Korner A, Chlup R, Zoupas CS, Ragozin AK, Wudi K, Bartaskova D, Pappas A, Niederland T, Taybani Z, Barak L, Vazeou A. Improved glycemic control through continuous glucose sensor-augmented insulin pump therapy: prospective results from a community and academic practice patient registry. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2009;3(4):804–11. [PMC free article: PMC2769970] [PubMed: 20144331]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  148. Colette C, Pares-Herbute N, Monnier L, Selam JL, Thomas N, Mirouze J. Effect of different insulin administration modalities on vitamin D metabolism of insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Horm Metab Res. 89;21(1):37–41. [PubMed: 2647606]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  149. Connell FA, Mitchell WH, Norman JE, McMahon P. Insulin-infusion pumps in type I diabetes. N Engl J Med. 83;308(2):100–1. [PubMed: 6847930]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  150. Connis RT, Taylor TR, Gordon MJ, Mecklenburg RS, Liljenquist JE, Stephens JW, Baker MS. Changes in cognitive and social functioning of diabetic patients following initiation of insulin infusion therapy. Exp Aging Res. 89;15(02-Jan):51–60. [PubMed: 2583216]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  151. Cooke D, Hurel SJ, Casbard A, Steed L, Walker S, Meredith S, Nunn AJ, Manca A, Sculpher M, Barnard M, Kerr D, Weaver JU, Ahlquist J, Newman SP. Randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of continuous glucose monitoring on HbA(1c) in insulin-treated diabetes (MITRE Study) Diabet Med. 2009;26(5):540–7. [PubMed: 19646195]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  152. Cooper AA. New tools 2009. Diabetes Self Manag. 2009;26(6):32, 34, 36–40. [PubMed: 20058719]

    No original data

  153. Cortina S, Repaske DR, Hood KK. Sociodemographic and psychosocial factors associated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes. 2010;11(5):337–44. [PubMed: 19761529]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  154. Cosson E, Hamo-Tchatchouang E, Dufaitre-Patouraux L, Attali JR, Paries J, Schaepelynck-Belicar P. Multicentre, randomised, controlled study of the impact of continuous sub-cutaneous glucose monitoring (GlucoDay) on glycaemic control in type 1 and type 2 diabetes patients. Diabetes Metab. 2009;35(4):312–8. [PubMed: 19560388]

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  155. Costa Gil JE, Galloway JA, Wentworth SM. [Treatment of diabetics with the Auto-syringe pump for the continuous infusion of insulin by the subcutaneous route]. Rev Clin Esp. 82;164(6):377–81. [PubMed: 7051202]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  156. Coustan DR, Reece EA, Sherwin RS, Rudolf MC, Bates SE, Sockin SM, Holford T, Tamborlane WV. A randomized clinical trial of the insulin pump vs intensive conventional therapy in diabetic pregnancies. JAMA. 86;255(5):631–6. [PubMed: 3511311]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  157. Crepaldi C, Nosadini R, Bruttomesso D, Fioretto P, Fedele D, Segato T, Piermarocchi S, Midena E, Pozza G, Micossi P, Librenti MC, Menchini U, Bandello F, Scialdone A, Brancato R, Brunetti P, Massi-Benedetti M. Santeusan The effect of continuous insulin infusion as compared with conventional insulin therapy in the evolution of diabetic retinal ischaemia. Two years report. DIABETES NUTR. METAB. CLIN. EXP. 89;2(3):209–218.

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  158. Cyganek K, Hebda-Szydlo A, Katra B, Klupa T, Kaim I, Reron A, Malecki MT. Efficacy and safety of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy in pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 2009;58

    Case series or cross-sectional

  159. Cyganek K, Hebda-Szydlo A, Katra B, Skupien J, Klupa T, Janas I, Kaim I, Sieradzki J, Reron A, Malecki MT. Glycemic control and selected pregnancy outcomes in type 1 diabetes women on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and multiple daily injections: the significance of pregnancy planning. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2010;12(1):41–7. [PubMed: 20082584]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  160. Cyganek K, Hebda-Szydlo A, Katra B, Skupien J, Klupa T, Janas I, Kaim I, Sieradzki J, Reron A, Malecki MT. Pregnancy planning improves glycemic control and pregnancy outcomes in type 1 diabetes women on CSII and MDI. Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 2010;40:8.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  161. Dahl-Jorgensen K, Bjoro T, Kierulf P, Sandvik L, Bangstad HJ, Hanssen KF. Long-term glycemic control and kidney function in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Kidney Int. 92;41(4):920–3. [PubMed: 1513113]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  162. Dahl-Jorgensen K, Brinchmann-Hansen O, Hanssen KF, Ganes T, Kierulf P, Smeland E, Sandvik L, Aagenaes O. Effect of near normoglycaemia for two years on progression of early diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy: the Oslo study. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 86;293(6556):1195–9. [PMC free article: PMC1341978] [PubMed: 3096429]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  163. Dahl-Jorgensen K, Brinchmann-Hansen O, Hanssen KF, Sandvik L, Aagenaes O. Rapid tightening of blood glucose control leads to transient deterioration of retinopathy in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: the Oslo study. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 85;290(6471):811–5. [PMC free article: PMC1418598] [PubMed: 3919804]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  164. Dahl-Jorgensen K, Hanssen KF, Aagenaes O, Larsen S. [New methods for subcutaneous insulin administration. A year's experience with the insulin pump and multiple insulin injection therapy]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 84;104(13):856–61. [PubMed: 6379982]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  165. Dahl-Jorgensen K, Hanssen KF, Kierulf P, Bjoro T, Sandvik L, Aagenaes O. Reduction of urinary albumin excretion after 4 years of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. The Oslo Study. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 88;117(1):19–25. [PubMed: 3289293]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  166. Dandona P, Besterman HS, Freedman DB. Continuous subcutaneous infusion of insulin (CSII) during pregnancy and fetal size. PRACT. DIABETES. 86;3(1):33–35.

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  167. Danne T. Tailoring intensified insulin therapy in children. Pediatr Diabetes. 2009;10(5):295–7. [PubMed: 19682282]

    No original data

  168. Davies AG, Price DA, Houlton CA, Burn JL, Fielding BA, Postlethwaite RJ. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in diabetes mellitus. A year's prospective trial. Arch Dis Child. 84;59(11):1027–33. [PMC free article: PMC1628813] [PubMed: 6391388]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  169. de Beaufort CE, Bruining GJ, Aarsen RS, den Boer NC, Grose WF. Does continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) prolong the remission phase of insulin-dependent diabetic children? Preliminary findings of a randomized prospective study. Neth J Med. 85;28 Suppl 1:53–4. [PubMed: 3892341]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  170. de Beaufort CE, Houtzagers CM, Bruining GJ, Aarsen RS, den Boer NC, Grose WF, van Strik R, de Visser JJ. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) versus conventional injection therapy in newly diagnosed diabetic children: two-year follow-up of a randomized, prospective trial. Diabet Med. 89;6(9):766–71. [PubMed: 2533034]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  171. De Block C. Translating continuous glucose monitoring systems: toys or tools. Curr Diabetes Rev. 2008;4(3):157–8. [PubMed: 18690895]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  172. De Leeuw I, Van Gaal L, Guastavino V. 2 years' experience with insulin pumps in treatment of type I diabetics. TIJDSCHR. GENEESKD. 85;41(3):169–172.

    Other reason

  173. De Nobel E. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion: the insulin pump. Neth J Med. 84;27(5):173–6. [PubMed: 6374480]

    No original data

  174. Deckers S, Hermans MP, Buysschaert M. Therapy, glycaemic control and complications in type 1 diabetic patients: results from a single centre cohort of 465 subjects. Acta Clin Belg. 2001;56(5):289–96. [PubMed: 11770224]

    No concurrent comparison group

  175. Dedov II. [Biotechnological methods in the treatment of diabetes mellitus]. Sov Med. 89;(9):82–4. [PubMed: 2690374]

    Other reason

  176. DeHaven JW. Effecting better insulin control with the portable infusion pump. J Med Assoc Ga. 82;71(3):183–5. [PubMed: 7086298]

    No original data

  177. Deiss D, Kordonouri O, Meyer K, Danne T. Long hypoglycaemic periods detected by subcutaneous continuous glucose monitoring in toddlers and pre-school children with diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med. 2001;18(4):337–8. [PubMed: 11437869]

    Does not apply to a key question

  178. Delcroix C. [Care of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents]. Soins Pediatr Pueric. 2009;(248):19–21. [PubMed: 19580053]

    Other reason

  179. Delvecchio M, Zecchino C, Salzano G, Faienza MF, Cavallo L, De Luca F, Lombardo F. Effects of moderate-severe exercise on blood glucose in Type 1 diabetic adolescents treated with insulin pump or glargine insulin. J Endocrinol Invest. 2009;32(6):519–24. [PubMed: 19474521]

    Does not apply to a key question

  180. Dicker D, Feldberg D, Karp M, Yeshaya A, Samuel N, Goldman JA. Preconceptional diabetes control in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy. J Perinat Med. 87;15(2):161–7. [PubMed: 3656048]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  181. DiMeglio LA, Pottorff TM, Boyd SR, France L, Fineberg N, Eugster EA. A randomized, controlled study of insulin pump therapy in diabetic preschoolers. J Pediatr. 2004;145(3):380–4. [PubMed: 15343195]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  182. Dokus K, Dokusova S, Martinka E, Matusek J, Zubor P, Danko J. Insulin pump therapy and metabolic goals in pregnancies complicated by type 1 diabetes mellitus. Int. J. Gynecol. Obstet. 2009;107:S440.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  183. Edelmann E, Walter H, Biermann E, Schleicher E, Bachmann W, Mehnert H. Sustained normoglycemia and remission phase in newly diagnosed type I diabetic subjects. Comparison between continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and conventional therapy during a one year follow-up. Horm Metab Res. 87;19(9):419–21. [PubMed: 3319859]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  184. Ehrhardt NM, Chellappa M, Walker MS, Fonda SJ, Vigersky RA. The effect of real-time continuous glucose monitoring on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2011;5(3):668–75. [PMC free article: PMC3192632] [PubMed: 21722581]

    Other reason

  185. Eichner HL, Selam JL, Holleman CB, Worcester BR, Turner DS, Charles MA. Reduction of severe hypoglycemic events in type I (insulin dependent) diabetic patients using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Diabetes Res. 88;8(4):189–93. [PubMed: 3148381]

    No concurrent comparison group

  186. Emelyanov A, Kuraeva T, Peterkova V. CSII with real time continuous glucose monitoring versus raditional CSII: The comparative results. Pediatr. Diabetes. 2009;10:101.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  187. Emelyanov A, Kuraeva T, Peterkova V. CSII with real time continuous glucose monitoring vs. traditional CSII: Two year comparative results. Horm. Res. Paediatr. 2010;74:57.

    Other reason

  188. Exelbert LL. Safety of insulin pumps, even in adolescent use, depends on thorough patient selection, evaluation, and education. Pediatrics. 2008;122(3):682. author reply 682-3. [PubMed: 18762546]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  189. Fahlen M, Eliasson B, Oden A. Optimization of basal insulin delivery in Type 1 diabetes: a retrospective study on the use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and insulin glargine. Diabet Med. 2005;22(4):382–6. [PubMed: 15787660]

    Observational study that does not report on macrovascular, microvascular, maternal, or fetal outcomes

  190. Faro B. Maintaining good control in children with diabetes. Pediatr Nurs. 83;9(5):368–73. [PubMed: 6353343]

    No original data

  191. Feldberg D, Dicker D, Samuel N, Peleg D, Karp M, Goldman JA. Intrapartum management of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) gestants. A comparative study of constant intravenous insulin infusion and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pump (CSIIP) Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 88;67(4):333–8. [PubMed: 3051881]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  192. Feldt-Rasmussen B, Mathiesen ER, Deckert T. Effect of two years of strict metabolic control on progression of incipient nephropathy in insulin-dependent diabetes. Lancet. 86;2(8519):1300–4. [PubMed: 2878175]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  193. Feldt-Rasmussen B, Mathiesen ER, Hegedus L, Deckert T. Kidney function during 12 months of strict metabolic control in insulin-dependent diabetic patients with incipient nephropathy. N Engl J Med. 86;314(11):665–70. [PubMed: 3513009]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  194. Felig P, Tamborlane W, Sherwin RS, Genel M. Infusion-pump treatment of diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 79;301(5):268–9. [PubMed: 449998]

    No original data

  195. Felsing W, Bibergeil H, Menzel R, Albrecht G, Felsing U, Dabels J, Reichel G, Luder C. Results of treatment with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in insulin-dependent (type I) diabetics. Exp Clin Endocrinol. 84;83(2):136–42. [PubMed: 6373315]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  196. Fenichel P, Verdino P, Melandri E, Boutte P, Gillet JY, Harter M. [Pregnancy in diabetics. Efficacy and tolerability of the portable insulin pump]. Presse Med. 83;12(16):1020–1. [PubMed: 6221267]

    Other reason

  197. Festin MR. Continuous glucose monitoring in gestational diabetes. BMJ. 2008;337(7675):886–887.

    No original data

  198. Fiallo-Scharer R, Cheng J, Beck RW, Buckingham BA, Chase HP, Kollman C, Laffel L, Lawrence JM, Mauras N, Tamborlane WV, Wilson DM, Wolpert H. Factors predictive of severe hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes: analysis from the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation continuous glucose monitoring randomized control trial dataset. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(3):586–90. [PMC free article: PMC3041185] [PubMed: 21266651]

    Does not apply to a key question

  199. Fischer U. Fundamentals of glucose sensors. Diabet Med. 91;8(4):309–21. [PubMed: 1830254]

    No original data

  200. Fischl AR, Conway BN, Orchard TJ. Time trends in intensive insulin therapy and self monitoring in type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 2009;58

    Case series or cross-sectional

  201. Fish LH, Wetzler HP, Davidson JL, Ofstead CL, Johnson ML. Advanced Insulin Management program reduces A1C levels and regimen-related distress without weight gain in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Insulin. 2008;3(2):59–66.

    Observational study that does not report on macrovascular, microvascular, maternal, or fetal outcomes

  202. Fisher BM. Insulin infusion in diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction Effective components of care and patients who might benefit must be determined. BMJ. 97;314(7074):145. author reply 146. [PMC free article: PMC2125634] [PubMed: 9006487]

    No original data

  203. Flores d'Arcais A, Morandi F, Beccaria L, Meschi F, Chiumello G. Metabolic control in newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic children. Effect of continuous subcutaneous infusion. Horm Res. 84;19(2):65–9. [PubMed: 6368353]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  204. Fox LA, Buckloh LM, Smith SD, Wysocki T, Mauras N. A randomized controlled trial of insulin pump therapy in young children with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(6):1277–81. [PubMed: 15920039]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  205. Fox L, Englert K, Mauras N. Effects of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in adolescents with newly-diagnosed type 1 diabetes (T1D) on insulin resistance and ss-cell function: A pilot study. Diabetes. 2009;58

    Case series or cross-sectional

  206. Franciosi M, Maione A, Pomili B, Amoretti R, Busetto E, Capani F, Bruttomesso D, Di Bartolo P, Girelli A, Leonetti F, Morviducci L, Ponzi P, Vitacolonna E, Nicolucci A. Correlates of quality of life in adults with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin injection. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010;20(1):7–14. [PubMed: 19747804]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  207. Fredholm N, Vignati L, Brown S. Insulin pumps. The patients' verdict. Am J Nurs. 84;84(1):36–8. [PubMed: 6559029]

    No original data

  208. Frier B. Hypoglycemia and continuous blood glucose monitoring in older adults. Diabetic Hypoglycemia. 2010;3(2):11.

    Other reason

  209. Gabbe SG, Holing E, Temple P, Brown ZA. Benefits, risks, costs, and patient satisfaction associated with insulin pump therapy for the pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes mellitus. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000;182(6):1283–91. [PubMed: 10871440]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  210. Galletti PM, Altman JJ. Extracorporeal treatment of diabetes in man. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs. 84;30:675–7. [PubMed: 6398556]

    No original data

  211. Gambardella S, Napoli A, Verrastro AM, Spallone V, Felici MG, Geraldini C, Menzinger G. [Improvement in peripheral and autonomic neuropathy during 18 months of treatment with subcutaneous continuous insulin infusion in type 1 diabetics]. Minerva Endocrinol. 84;9(2):91–4. [PubMed: 6503918]

    Other reason

  212. Garcia C, Mayaudon H, Bordier L, Le Berre JP, Dupuy O, Bauduceau B. [Modifications of 24-h blood pressure profile associated with reduction of the heart rate variability in type 1 diabetic patients]. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss. 2007;100(8):699–703. [PubMed: 17928780]

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  213. Garg S, Jovanovic L. Relationship of fasting and hourly blood glucose levels to HbA1c values: safety, accuracy, and improvements in glucose profiles obtained using a 7-day continuous glucose sensor. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(12):2644–9. [PubMed: 17130198]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  214. Garg SK. Impact of insulin delivery devices in diabetes care. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2010;12 Suppl 1:S1–3. [PubMed: 20515296]

    No original data

  215. Garg SK. Role of emerging new technologies. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2008;10(5):413–4. [PubMed: 18715219]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  216. Garg SK, Kelly WC, Voelmle MK, Ritchie PJ, Gottlieb PA, McFann KK, Ellis SL. Continuous home monitoring of glucose: improved glycemic control with real-life use of continuous glucose sensors in adult subjects with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(12):3023–5. [PubMed: 17848608]

    Observational study that does not report on macrovascular, microvascular, maternal, or fetal outcomes

  217. Garg SK, Voelmle MK, Beatson CR, Miller HA, Crew LB, Freson BJ, Hazenfield RM. Use of Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Subjects With Type 1 Diabetes on Multiple Daily Injections Versus Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion Therapy: A prospective 6-month study. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(3):574–9. [PMC free article: PMC3041183] [PubMed: 21278138]

    Observational study that does not report on macrovascular, microvascular, maternal, or fetal outcomes

  218. Garg SK, Voelmle MK, Beatson CR, Miller HA, Crew LB, Freson BJ, Hazenfield RM. Use of continuous glucose monitoring in subjects with type 1 diabetes on multiple daily injections versus continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy: a prospective 6-month study. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(3):574–9. [PMC free article: PMC3041183] [PubMed: 21278138]

    Observational study that does not report on macrovascular, microvascular, maternal, or fetal outcomes

  219. Garg SK, Walker AJ, Hoff HK, D'souza AO, Gottlieb PA, Chase HP. Glycemic parameters with multiple daily injections using insulin glargine versus insulin pump. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2004;6(1):9–15. [PubMed: 15000764]

    Observational study that does not report on macrovascular, microvascular, maternal, or fetal outcomes

  220. Garg S, Zisser H, Schwartz S, Bailey T, Kaplan R, Ellis S, Jovanovic L. Improvement in glycemic excursions with a transcutaneous, real-time continuous glucose sensor: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(1):44–50. [PubMed: 16373894]

    Less than 24 hours of usage

  221. Geldof BA, Oranje AP, van Joost T. Hand eczema associated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Contact Dermatitis. 89;20(5):384–5. [PubMed: 2527722]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  222. Georgopoulos A. CSII and ICT in treating Type I diabetic individuals. Diabetes Care. 83;6(2):201–1. [PubMed: 6343026]

    No original data

  223. Gerich JE. Selection of patients for intensive insulin therapy. Arch Intern Med. 85;145(8):1383–4. [PubMed: 3896178]

    No original data

  224. Giardina S, Lynch P, Papo NL. A cost-effectiveness analysis of continuous subcutaneous insulin injection vs. multiple daily injections in type-1 diabetes patients in Italy. Value Health. 2009;12(7):A407. [PubMed: 19171006]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  225. Gibson OJ, Farmer AJ, McSharry PE, Tarassenko L. On real-time estimates of blood glucose levels: response to Trevino. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(12):e133. author reply e134. [PubMed: 18042742]

    No original data

  226. Gimenez M, Conget I, Nicolau J, Pericot A, Levy I. Outcome of pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes intensively treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion or conventional therapy. A case-control study. Acta Diabetol. 2007;44(1):34–7. [PubMed: 17357884]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  227. Gimenez M, Lara M, Conget I. Sustained efficacy of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in type 1 diabetes subjects with recurrent non-severe and severe hypoglycemia and hypoglycemia unawareness: a pilot study. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2010;12(7):517–21. [PubMed: 20597825]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  228. Giocolea I, Hernandez I, Fombellida J, Vazquez JA. Renal function of insulin-dependent diabetic patients, treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pump. A comparison with conventional insulin therapy during a follow-up period of one year. AN. MED. INTERNA. 88;5(4):169–172.

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  229. Go Y, Hanafusa T. [Principles of treatment and insulin therapy in type 1 diabetes]. Nippon Rinsho. 2002;60 Suppl 9:177–82. [PubMed: 12386990]

    Other reason

  230. Goicolea Opacua I, Hernandez Colau I, Vazquez Garcia JA. [Comparative study between the subcutaneous continuous insulin infusion pump and optimized conventional treatment. Effects at 6 months]. Rev Clin Esp. 1986;179(1):3–7. [PubMed: 3526432]

    Other reason

  231. Goicolea Opacua I, Hernandez Colau I, Cortazar Galarza A, Vazquez Garcia JA. [Comparison of metabolic control between the continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pump and augmented conventional treatment. Effects after 12 months]. Med Clin (Barc) 87;88(16):617–20. [PubMed: 3298874]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  232. Goicolea Opacua I, Martinez Castillo A, Santamaria Pelarda E, Sola Sarabia C, Vazquez Garcia JA. [Metabolic control using a subcutaneous insulin infusion pump: effects 2 years after treatment]. Rev Clin Esp. 88;182(4):200–2. [PubMed: 3045905]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  233. Goicolea Opacua I, Vazquez Garcia JA, Fombellida Cortazar J, Hernandez Collau I. [Course of the glomerular filtration rate and other renal parameters in medium-term insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Effect of strict treatment with a subcutaneous continuous infusion pump]. Med Clin (Barc) 86;87(16):657–60. [PubMed: 3796093]

    Other reason

  234. Goicolea I, Garcia Y, Mancha AI, Ugarte E, Vazquez JA. [Insulin infusion pump and acute and chronic complications in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: Effects after 10 years]. BOMBA DE INFUSION Y COMPLICACIONES AGUDAS Y CRONICAS EN LA DIABETES MELLITUS DEPENDIENTE DE LA INSULINA: EFECTOS A LOS 10 ANOS. ENDOCRINOLOGIA. 96;43(2):48–52.

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  235. Goicolea I, Pardo C, Vazquez JA. The effect of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion versus intermitent subcutaneous insulin injection on the tolerance to exercise in insulin-dependent diabetics. ENDOCRINOLOGIA. 1989;36(1):7–10.

    No outcome of interest

  236. Goicolea I, Rueda M, Hernandez I, Quiroga A, Vazquez JA. [Effect of postprandial exercise in type I diabetes: comparison between the continuous-infusion insulin pump and intensified conventional therapy]. Rev Clin Esp. 86;179(7):355–8. [PubMed: 3541079]

    Other reason

  237. Goicolea I, Santamaria E, Pardo C, Vazquez JA, Martin A, Castresana I. [Course of diabetic retinopathy and metabolic control with subcutaneous insulin infusion pump: 18-month study]. An Med Interna. 89;6(2):71–3. [PubMed: 2491075]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  238. Golenko A, Noczynska A. An evaluation of physical development and metabolic control in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus receiving treatment with various insulin regimens. Part 1. Diabetol. Dosw. Klin. 2008;8(3):115–123.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  239. Gonzalez Rodiles Heredia RE. Effectiveness of continuous glucose sensor-augmented insulin pump therapy in type 1 diabetes mellitus: Efectividad del tratamiento con bomba de infusion continua de insulina con sensor de glucemia en diabetes mellitus tipo 1. Rev. Clin. Esp. 2011;211(1):54.

    No original data

  240. Gonzalez-Romero S, Gonzalez-Molero I, Fernandez-Abellan M, Dominguez-Lopez ME, Ruiz-de-Adana S, Olveira G, Soriguer F. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion versus multiple daily injections in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2010;12(4):263–9. [PubMed: 20210564]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  241. Goss PW. Glycaemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes after provision of public hospital-funded insulin pumps. Med J Aust. 2010;192(2):107–8. [PubMed: 20078414]

    No concurrent comparison group

  242. Gottlieb PA, Crew LB, Moser EG, Voelmle MK, Beatson CR, Gutin RS, Garg SK. Effects of continuous glucose monitoring on glycaemic control in subjects with type 1 diabetes delivering insulin via pump or multiple daily injections: A prospective study. Diabetologia. 2010;53:S25.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  243. Green JB, Ahmann A, Bergenstal RM, Dailey G, Tanenberg R, Buse JB. Glucose control in adults during a 1-year randomised controlled trial comparing sensor-augmented pump therapy and multiple daily injection therapy: STAR 3 study. Diabetologia. 2010;53:S24.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  244. Greene SA. Pump therapy in children. Diabet Med. 84;1(1):44–7. [PubMed: 6242776]

    No concurrent comparison group

  245. Griffin ME, Feder A, Tamborlane WV. Lipoatrophy associated with lispro insulin in insulin pump therapy: an old complication, a new cause? Diabetes Care. 2001;24(1):174. [PubMed: 11194227]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  246. Grimaldi A, Sachon C, Timsit J. [Insulin doses adaptation with insulin Lys-pro in external pump]. Diabetes Metab. 2001;27(3):386–7. [PubMed: 11431606]

    No original data

  247. Grimm JJ, Haardt MJ, Thibult N, Goicolea I, Tchobroutsky G, Slama G. Lifestyle, metabolic control and social implications of pump therapy in 54 routine type I diabetic patients. Diabete Metab. 1987;13(1):3–11. [PubMed: 3569631]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  248. Gross TM, Ter Veer A. Continuous glucose monitoring in previously unstudied population subgroups. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2000;2 Suppl 1:S27–34. [PubMed: 11469629]

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  249. Gruberova J, Lacigova S, Rusavy Z, Tomesova J. The pump treatment (CSII) in type 2 diabetes compared to intensified insulin analog (MDI) treatment: Study design and the first results. Diabetes Technol. Ther. 2011;13(2):228.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  250. Guastamacchia E, Nardelli GM, Di Paolo S, Lattanzi V, Ciampolillo A, Lacasella R, Montedoro P, Giorgino R. Remission of insulin dependence induced by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in type I, recent onset diabetics: role of beta cell recovery and lymphocyte subsets distribution. Diabete Metab. 88;14(2):138–9. [PubMed: 3042488]

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  251. Guerci B, Meyer L, Delbachian I, Kolopp M, Ziegler O, Drouin P. Blood glucose control on Sunday in IDDM patients: intensified conventional insulin therapy versus continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 98;40(3):175–80. [PubMed: 9716921]

    Observational study that does not report on macrovascular, microvascular, maternal, or fetal outcomes

  252. Guest J, Collins MC. Outpatient initiation of insulin infusion pump therapy. Ala Med. 83;53(5):36, 39. [PubMed: 6650317]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  253. Guilhem I, Balkau B, Lecordier F, Malecot JM, Elbadii S, Leguerrier AM, Poirier JY, Derrien C, Bonnet F. Insulin pump failures are still frequent: a prospective study over 6 years from 2001 to 2007. Diabetologia. 2009;52(12):2662–4. [PubMed: 19834687]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  254. Gutman RA, Litwak LE, Fagin JA, Plantalech L, Steiner S. [Insulin portable pump vs. intensified conventional injections in diabetes]. Medicina (B Aires) 85;45(3):225–30. [PubMed: 3915900]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  255. Haakens K, Dahl-Jorgensen K, Vaaler S, Aagenaes O, Mosand R, Hanssen KF. What happens in the long-term to the intensively treated IDDM patient? A four year follow up. PRACT. DIABETES INT. 95;12(4):178–181.

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  256. Haakens K, Hanssen KF, Dahl-Jorgensen K, Vaaler S, Aagenaes O, Mosand R. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), multiple injections (MI) and conventional insulin therapy (CT) in self-selecting insulin-dependent diabetic patients. A comparison of metabolic control, acute complications and patient preferences. J Intern Med. 90;228(5):457–64. [PubMed: 2254715]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  257. Haardt MJ, Berne C, Dorange C, Slama G, Selam JL. Efficacy and indications of CSII revisited: the Hotel-Dieu cohort. Diabet Med. 97;14(5):407–8. [PubMed: 9171263]

    Does not apply to a key question

  258. Haladova I, Lacigova S, Cechurova D, Jankovec Z, Krcma M, Rusavy Z. [Long-term evaluation of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus treated with insulin glargine]. Vnitr Lek. 2009;55(11):1016–21. [PubMed: 20017431]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  259. Halford J, Harris C. Determining clinical and psychological benefits and barriers with continuous glucose monitoring therapy. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2010;12(3):201–5. [PubMed: 20151770]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  260. Hall K, Johansson BL, Povoa G, Thalme B. Serum levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I, II and IGF binding protein in diabetic adolescents treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. J Intern Med. 89;225(4):273–8. [PubMed: 2542427]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  261. Halvorson M, Carpenter S, Kaiserman K, Kaufman FR. A pilot trial in pediatrics with the sensor-augmented pump: combining real-time continuous glucose monitoring with the insulin pump. J Pediatr. 2007;150(1):103–105.e1. [PubMed: 17188626]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  262. Hanas R, Adolfsson P. Insulin pumps in pediatric routine care improve long-term metabolic control without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia. Pediatr Diabetes. 2006;7(1):25–31. [PubMed: 16489971]

    No concurrent comparison group

  263. Hanas R. CSII in children with diabetes. Acta Biomed. 2005;76 Suppl 3:36–8. [PubMed: 16915794]

    No original data

  264. Hanas R. Insulin pumps in children and adolescents. Pract. Diabetes Int. 2001;18(5 SUPPL.):S6.

    No original data

  265. Hanas R, Argadh CD, Graham C, Gerhardsson P, Hankin CS. Clinical and economic outcomes of continuous glucose monitoring among Swedish residents with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Technol. Ther. 2011;13(2):230.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  266. Hanas R, Lindgren F, Lindblad B. A 2-yr national population study of pediatric ketoacidosis in Sweden: predisposing conditions and insulin pump use. Pediatr Diabetes. 2009;10(1):33–7. [PubMed: 18761647]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  267. Hanssen KF, Brinchmann-Hansen O, Dahl-Jorgensen K, Sandvik L. [Effect of intensive treatment on diabetic retinopathy]. Journ Annu Diabetol Hotel Dieu. 88:167–73. [PubMed: 3050220]

    No concurrent comparison group

  268. Hanssen KF, Dahl-Jorgensen K, Brinchmann-Hansen O. The influence of strict control on diabetic complications. Acta Endocrinol Suppl (Copenh) 85;272:57–60. [PubMed: 3914805]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  269. Harmel AP, Mathur R. Similar A1C outcomes in type 1 diabetic patients undergoing intensive diabetes management with preprandial rapid-acting insulin and either CSII or glargine. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(1):272–3. [PubMed: 14694001]

    No concurrent comparison group

  270. Hayter PG, Sharma M, Dunka L, Stout P, Price DA, Horwitz DL, Marhoul J, Vaez-Zadeh S. Performance standards for continuous glucose monitors. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2005;7(5):721–6. [PubMed: 16241875]

    No original data

  271. Heinemann L, Schmelzeisen-Redeker G. Non-invasive continuous glucose monitoring in Type I diabetic patients with optical glucose sensors. Non-Invasive Task Force (NITF) Diabetologia. 98;41(7):848–54. [PubMed: 9686929]

    Does not apply to a key question

  272. Heinzl S. Type 1 diabetes mellitus: Insulin pump therapy with continuous blood glucose monitoring: Diabetes mellitus typ 1: Insulinpumpentherapie mit kontinuierlicher blutzuckerbestimmung. Dtsch. Arztebl. 2010;107(36):A1700.

    No original data

  273. Hellier S. Continuous blood glucose monitoring and hypoglycemia. Diabetic Hypoglycemia. 2010;3(2):16.

    Other reason

  274. Helve E, Koivisto VA, Lehtonen A, Pelkonen R, Huttunen JK, Nikkila EA. A crossover comparison of continuous insulin infusion and conventional injection treatment of type I diabetes. Acta Med Scand. 87;221(4):385–93. [PubMed: 3300175]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  275. Helve E, Laatikainen L, Merenmies L, Koivisto VA. Continuous insulin infusion therapy and retinopathy in patients with type I diabetes. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 87;115(3):313–9. [PubMed: 3303785]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  276. Hepp KD. [Programmed insulin infusion as an attempt at long-term therapy of diabetes mellitus]. Verh Dtsch Ges Inn Med. 81;87:1429–31. [PubMed: 6800145]

    No original data

  277. Hermanides J, De Vries H. Improved control of type 1 diabetes mellitus through an insulin pump with glucose sensor: Betere instelling van diabetes mellitus type 1 door insulinepomp met glucosesensor. Ned. Tijdschr. Geneeskd. 2011;155(8):364.

    No original data

  278. Hermanides J, Devries JH. Sensor-augmented insulin pump more effective than multiple daily insulin injections for reducing HbA1C in people with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes. Evid Based Med. 2011;16(2):46–8. [PubMed: 21224281]

    No original data

  279. Hermanides J, Norgaard K, Bruttomesso D, Mathieu C, Frid A, Dayan CM, Diem P, Fermon C, Wentholt IME, Hoekstra JBL, DeVries JH. Sensor augmented pump therapy substantially lowers HbA1c; a randomized controlled trial. Diabetologia. 2009;52(S1):S43.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  280. Hermanns N. [What does the application of continuous glucose monitoring in type 1 diabetes bring? Evaluation of therapeutic algorithms]. Was bringt der Einsatz der kontinuierlichen Glukosemessung bei Typ-1-Diabetes?: Evaluation von Therapiealgorithmen. Diabetologe. 2010;6(6):483–484.

    No original data

  281. Hermanyi I, Tamas G Jr, Flautner L, Szabo LZ, Egyed J. [Perioperative use of a portable continuous insulin infusion pump in diabetic patients]. Orv Hetil. 84;125(17):1013–6. [PubMed: 6717993]

    Other reason

  282. Hieronymus L, Geil P. Women & diabetes. Pregnant and pumping. Great expectations. Diabetes Self Manag. 2003;20(2):104–6. 108–10. [PubMed: 12715739]

    No original data

  283. Hirsch IB. Continuous glucose monitoring: understanding our current culture. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2009;11 Suppl 1:S131–2. [PubMed: 19469673]

    No original data

  284. Hirsch IB. Insulin delivery devices--pumps and pens. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2010;12 Suppl 1:S115–6. [PubMed: 20515300]

    No original data

  285. Hirsch IB, Farkas-Hirsch R, McGill JB. Catheter obstruction with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Effect of insulin concentration. Diabetes Care. 92;15(4):593–4. [PubMed: 1499492]

    No original data

  286. Hissa MN, Hissa AS, Bruin VM, Fredrickson LP. Comparison between continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and multiple insulin injection therapy in type 1 diabetes mellitus: 18-month follow-up. Endocr Pract. 2002;8(6):411–6. [PubMed: 15251830]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  287. Hogan M, Schulz G, Schrezenmeir J. A study of long-term treatment of type I diabetics with externally portable mini-insulin infusion pumps in comparison with s.c. insulin injections. LIFE SUPPORT SYST. 84;2(SUPPL. 1):16–18.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  288. Home PD, Marshall SM. Problems and safety of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Diabet Med. 84;1(1):41–4. [PubMed: 6242775]

    No original data

  289. Home PD. Cost-effectiveness of CSII. Diabet Med. 2006;23(6):707. author reply 707-8. [PubMed: 16759317]

    No original data

  290. Home PD, Capaldo B, Burrin JM. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion gives improved blood glucose control compared with multiple injection therapy in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. DIABETOLOGIA. 82;22(5) No. 30.

    Other reason

  291. Home PD, Capaldo B, Burrin JM, Worth R, Alberti KG. A crossover comparison of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) against multiple insulin injections in insulin-dependent diabetic subjects: improved control with CSII. Diabetes Care. 82;5(5):466–71. [PubMed: 6765222]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  292. Home P. Replacing insulin injections. Diabet Med. 89;6(4):289–90. [PubMed: 2524331]

    No original data

  293. Hoogma RP, Spijker AJ, van Doorn-Scheele M, van Doorn TT, Michels RP, van Doorn RG, Levi M, Hoekstra JB. Quality of life and metabolic control in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 treated by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion or multiple daily insulin injections. Neth J Med. 2004;62(10):383–7. [PubMed: 15683093]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  294. Hooymans JM, van Ballegooie E, Reitsma WD, Schweitzer NM. [The course of diabetic retinopathy during treatment with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 88;132(14):624–8. [PubMed: 3362238]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  295. Howorka K, Pumprla J, Puck M, Howorka N, Perneczky E, Mihaljevic I. Retrospective case-controlled long-term study on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion vs multiple daily injections for functional insulin treatment in type l diabetes. Diabetologia. 2009;52(S1):S371.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  296. Husted SE, Nielsen HK, Bak JF, Beck-Nielsen H. Antithrombin III activity, von Willebrand factor antigen and platelet function in young diabetic patients treated with multiple insulin injections versus insulin pump treatment. Eur J Clin Invest. 89;19(1):90–4. [PubMed: 2499466]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  297. Hyllienmark L, Ludvigsson J. [Insulin pump--a realistic alternative in the treatment of diabetes in children and adolescents]. Lakartidningen. 92;89(13):1057–62. [PubMed: 1552805]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  298. Ibragimova LI, Filippov YI, Mayorov AY. Effectiveness of structured program for group training of T1D patients using CSII and real-time CGM. Diabetes Technol. Ther. 2011;13(2):232–233.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  299. Irsigler K. Diabetes treatment with implantable insulin delivery devices. Diabetes Care. 83;6(5):527. [PubMed: 6336351]

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  300. Irsigler K, Kritz H, Najemnik C, Hagmuller G, Lovett R. [Implantable fixed continuous flow pumps in type I diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes)]. Journ Annu Diabetol Hotel Dieu. 83:65–78. [PubMed: 6645142]

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  301. Irsigler K, Leodolter S, Rosenkranz A, Bali C, Rost I, Fuchs G, Marcovich M, Ogris E. [Diabetes and pregnancy]. Wien Med Wochenschr. 85;135(07-Jun):173–6. [PubMed: 3890378]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  302. Ito H, Kanatsuka A. [Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion]. Nippon Rinsho. 97;55(Suppl):267–72. [PubMed: 9434479]

    No original data

  303. Iwaoka H, Makino H, Yoshida S. [Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion]. Nippon Rinsho. 89;47(11):2577–82. [PubMed: 2601069]

    No original data

  304. Jackson CA, Greaves M, Boulton AJ, Ward JD, Preston FE. Near-normal glycaemic control does not correct abnormal platelet reactivity in diabetes mellitus. Clin Sci (Lond) 84;67(5):551–5. [PubMed: 6434224]

    No concurrent comparison group

  305. Jakisch BI, Wagner VM, Heidtmann B, Lepler R, Holterhus PM, Kapellen TM, Vogel C, Rosenbauer J, Holl RW. Comparison of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and multiple daily injections (MDI) in paediatric Type 1 diabetes: a multicentre matched-pair cohort analysis over 3 years. Diabet Med. 2008;25(1):80–5. [PubMed: 18199134]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  306. Jakobsen J, Christiansen JS, Kristoffersen I, Christensen CK, Hermansen K, Schmitz A, Mogensen CE. Autonomic and somatosensory nerve function after 2 years of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in type I diabetes. Diabetes. 88;37(4):452–5. [PubMed: 3288533]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  307. Janzen S. [Insulin pump therapy as possible treatment of diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents]. Kinderkrankenschwester. 2003;22(7):291–5. [PubMed: 16130565]

    No original data

  308. Jean R, Rolin B. [Continuous predetermined insulin infusion in insulin-dependent diabetes, mellitus (author's transl)]. Ann Pediatr (Paris) 81;28(7):481–3. [PubMed: 7025728]

    Other reason

  309. Jean R, Rolin B, Viguier JL, Morel G, Branchet A. [Continuous predetermined infusion in insulin dependent diabetes in children and adolescents. A comparative study in relation to insulin infusion and duration of diabetes (author's transl)]. Ann Pediatr (Paris) 81;28(7):485–92. [PubMed: 7025729]

    Other reason

  310. Jeandidier N, Miranda E, Mathelin C, Boivin S, Pinget M. Successful pregnancy in severe diabetes. Lancet. 92;339(8806):1428. [PubMed: 1350849]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  311. Jensen BM, Kuhl C, Molsted-Pedersen L, Saurbrey N, Fog-Pedersen J. Preconceptional treatment with insulin infusion pumps in insulin-dependent diabetic women with particular reference to prevention of congenital malformations. Acta Endocrinol Suppl (Copenh) 86;277:81–5. [PubMed: 3464152]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  312. Jia WP. [Information changes recognition: clinical use of continuous glucose monitoring system]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2009;89(10):649–50. [PubMed: 19595054]

    Other reason

  313. Johannesen J, Eising S, Kohlwes S, Riis S, Beck M, Carstensen B, Bendtson I, Nerup J. Treatment of Danish adolescent diabetic patients with CSII - a matched study to MDI. Pediatr Diabetes. 2008;9(1):23–8. [PubMed: 18211633]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  314. Johansson BL, Berg U, Broberger O, Thalme B. [Improved metabolic control, kidney function and health care economics are the results of treatment with insulin pump]. Lakartidningen. 83;80(41):3818–20. [PubMed: 6645721]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  315. Johns C, Faulkner MS, Quinn L. Characteristics of adolescents with type 1 diabetes who exhibit adverse outcomes. Diabetes Educ. 2008;34(5):874–85. [PMC free article: PMC2562918] [PubMed: 18832292]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  316. Jones R, Mustafa N. A fresh look at continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. JAAPA. 2008;21(3):36–7. 41–2. [PubMed: 18432046]

    No original data

  317. Jornsay DL, Duckles AE, Hankinson JP. Psychological considerations for patient selection and adjustment to insulin pump therapy. Diabetes Educ. 88;14(4):291–6. [PubMed: 3383744]

    No original data

  318. Kabrt J, Masek Z, Pav J. [Use of the Biostator in optimizing insulin treatment (preliminary communication)]. Vnitr Lek. 85;31(9):870–6. [PubMed: 4049764]

    Other reason

  319. Kabrt J, Pav J, Masek Z, Svacina S, Hovorka R. [The effect of continuous subcutaneous administration of insulin on the oxidation of energy substrates in insulin-dependent diabetics]. Cas Lek Cesk. 88;127(18):549–52. [PubMed: 3396036]

    No concurrent comparison group

  320. Kademann A, Schiel R, Hunger-Dathe W, Muller UA. Efficacy of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in comparison to intensified conventional insulin therapy: Effektivitat der insulinpumpentherapie im vergleich zur intensivierten konventionellen insulintherapie. Diabetes Stoffwechsel. 99;8(3):118–124.

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  321. Kamaratos A, Lentzas J, Papathanasiou M, Gerakari S, Mariolis A, Alevizos A, Salvanos L, Kokkoris S, Melidonis A. The role of general practitioners in the follow up of type 1 diabetic patients with insulin pump therapy. Rural Remote Health. 2007;7(1):657. [PubMed: 17284158]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  322. Kamoi K, Miyakoshi M, Maruyama R. A quality-of-life assessment of intensive insulin therapy using insulin lispro switched from short-acting insulin and measured by an ITR-QOL questionnaire: a prospective comparison of multiple daily insulin injections and continuous subcutaneous insulin i. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2004;64(1):19–25. [PubMed: 15036823]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  323. Kapellen T, Kordonouri O, Pankowska E, Rami B, Coutant R, Hartmann R, Lange K, Danne T. Sensor-augmented pump therapy from the onset of type 1 diabetes in children and adolescents - Results of the Pediatric ONSET Study after 12 months of treatment. Horm. Res. Paediatr. 2010;74:58.

    Other reason

  324. Karagianni P, Sampanis Ch, Katsoulis Ch, Miserlis G, Polyzos S, Zografou I, Stergiopoulos S, Douloumbakas I, Zamboulis Ch. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion versus multiple daily injections. Hippokratia. 2009;13(2):93–6. [PMC free article: PMC2683151] [PubMed: 19561778]

    Observational study that does not report on macrovascular, microvascular, maternal, or fetal outcomes

  325. Kashiwagi S. [Treatment with the insulin pump in type I diabetics]. Krankenpflege (Frankf) 85;39(08-Jul):249–51. [PubMed: 3932761]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  326. Kaufman FR. Intensive management of type 1 diabetes in young children. Lancet. 2005;365(9461):737–8. [PubMed: 15733703]

    No original data

  327. Kaufman FR. Role of the continuous glucose monitoring system in pediatric patients. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2000;2 Suppl 1:S49–52. [PubMed: 11469632]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  328. Kaufman FR, Gibson LC, Halvorson M, Carpenter S, Fisher LK, Pitukcheewanont P. A pilot study of the continuous glucose monitoring system: clinical decisions and glycemic control after its use in pediatric type 1 diabetic subjects. Diabetes Care. 2001;24(12):2030–4. [PubMed: 11723078]

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  329. Kaufman FR, Halvorson M, Fisher L, Pitukcheewanont P. Insulin pump therapy in type 1 pediatric patients. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 99;12 Suppl 3:759–64. [PubMed: 10626267]

    No original data

  330. Kaufman FR, Halvorson M, Miller D, Mackenzie M, Fisher LK, Pitukcheewanont P. Insulin pump therapy in type 1 pediatric patients: now and into the year 2000. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 99;15(5):338–52. [PubMed: 10585620]

    No original data

  331. Kawamori R, Shichiri M. [Artificial beta cells of pancreas for diabetics]. Nippon Rinsho. 82;40(2):369–76. [PubMed: 7087216]

    Other reason

  332. Keen H, Pickup JC, Viberti GC, Bilous R, Williams G. Aspects of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in diabetes. Diabetes Care. 81;4(1):54–7. [PubMed: 7009115]

    No original data

  333. Keller U, Pernet A, Fankhauser S. [Intensified insulin therapy with multiple insulin injections or insulin pumps]. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax. 86;75(21):611–3. [PubMed: 3523674]

    No original data

  334. Kerr D, Richardson T. Treating insulin allergy with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) Diabet Med. 2006;23(10):1159. author reply 1159. [PubMed: 16978387]

    No original data

  335. Kesavadev J, Balakrishnan S, Ahammed S, Jothydev S. Reduction of glycosylated hemoglobin following 6 months of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in an Indian population with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2009;11(8):517–21. [PubMed: 19698065]

    No concurrent comparison group

  336. Kessler C. [Practical aspects in the training and care of diabetics with insulin pump treatment]. Krankenpflege (Frankf) 85;39(08-Jul):273–6. [PubMed: 3932763]

    No original data

  337. Keuthage W. Continuous blood glucose measurement lowers the HbA1c value in diabetic patients: Diabetologie: Kontinuierliche blutglukosemessung senkt HbA 1c-wert. Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 2008;133(44):2252.

    No original data

  338. King AB, Armstrong DU. Daily glucose trend analyses and treatment adjustments using the continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS, Medtronic MiniMed): “tweaking” Diabetes Technol Ther. 2004;6(2):297. [PubMed: 15117592]

    No original data

  339. Kisch ES. [Treatment of diabetes by continuous insulin infusion]. Harefuah. 81;100(7):348–9. [PubMed: 7024057]

    Other reason

  340. Kishikawa H, Soejima H, Tamama Y, Araki E, Shichiri M. [Application and practice of intensive insulin therapy]. Nippon Rinsho. 2002;60 Suppl 9:297–303. [PubMed: 12387009]

    No original data

  341. Kitabchi AE, Fisher JN, Matteri R, Murphy MB. The use of continuous insulin delivery systems in treatment of diabetes mellitus. Adv Intern Med. 83;28:449–90. [PubMed: 6340430]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  342. Klonoff DC. Continuous glucose monitoring study does not demonstrate benefit in children and adolescents. J. Pediatr. 2009;154(3):463–464. [PubMed: 19874771]

    No original data

  343. Klupa T, Malecki MT, Sieradzki J. The continuous glucose monitoring system is effective in determining major factors affecting postprandial glycemic patterns in people with type 2 diabetes. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2008;2(3):541–2. [PMC free article: PMC2769728] [PubMed: 19885225]

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  344. Knerr I, Hofer SE, Holterhus PM, Nake A, Rosenbauer J, Weitzel D, Wolf J, Holl RW. Prevailing therapeutic regimes and predictive factors for prandial insulin substitution in 26 687 children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes in Germany and Austria. Diabet Med. 2007;24(12):1478–81. [PubMed: 17971184]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  345. Knight G, Boulton AJ, Drury J, Ward JD. Long term glycaemic control by alternative regimens in a feasibility study of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Diabetes Res. 86;3(7):355–8. [PubMed: 3780133]

    No concurrent comparison group

  346. Knight G, Boulton AJ, Drury J, Gamsu DS, Moses JL, Bradley C, Ward JD. A feasibility study of the use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in a diabetic clinic: patients' choice of treatment. Diabet Med. 84;1(4):267–72. [PubMed: 6242815]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  347. Knight G, Talbot JF, Ward JD. Optic neuropathy associated with rapid tightening of blood glucose control. Lancet. 84;1(8378):681. [PubMed: 6142369]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  348. Kohner EM, Lawson PM, Ghosh G, Testa M. Conference on insulin pump therapy in diabetes. Multicenter study of effect on microvascular disease. Assessment of fluorescein angiograms. Diabetes. 85;34 Suppl 3:56–60. [PubMed: 4018421]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  349. Koivisto VA, Tronier B. Postprandial blood glucose response to exercise in type I diabetes: comparison between pump and injection therapy. Diabetes Care. 83;6(5):436–40. [PubMed: 6400702]

    Does not apply to a key question

  350. Koivisto VA, Teppo AM, Maury CP, Taskinen MR. No evidence of amyloidosis in type I diabetics treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Diabetes. 83;32(1):88–90. [PubMed: 6848400]

    Does not apply to a key question

  351. Kolblova V, Dvorakova L, Hajkova E, Krausova H. [Treatment of the pregnant diabetic by means of a portable insulin pump]. Cesk Gynekol. 86;51(9):742–4. [PubMed: 3791439]

    Other reason

  352. Kordonouri O, Hartmann R, Lauterborn R, Barnekow C, Hoeffe J, Deiss D. Age-specific advantages of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion as compared with multiple daily injections in pediatric patients: one-year follow-up comparison by matched-pair analysis. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(1):133–4. [PubMed: 16373909]

    Observational study that does not report on macrovascular, microvascular, maternal, or fetal outcomes

  353. Kowalski A, Lum JW. Juvenile diabetes research foundation artificial pancreas consortium update. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2009;3(5):1224–6. [PMC free article: PMC2769908] [PubMed: 20144441]

    No original data

  354. Kowalski A. New technology and diabetes management. Am J Nurs. 2007;107(6 Suppl):16–7. [PubMed: 17563427]

    No original data

  355. Kracht T, Kordonouri O, Datz N, Scarabello C, Walte K, Blaesig S, Geldmacher R, Von Dem Berge W, Hartmann R, Chico H, Matsubara H, Balo AK, Danne T, Nakamura K. Reducing glycaemic variability and Hba1c with the Dexcom Seven.2(registered trademark) continuous glucose monitoring system in children and young adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) Pediatr. Diabetes. 2009;10:104.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  356. Kritz H, Hagmuller G, Lovett R, Irsigler K. Implanted constant basal rate insulin infusion devices for Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. Diabetologia. 83;25(2):78–81. [PubMed: 6628877]

    No concurrent comparison group

  357. Kruger D, Marcus AO. Psychological motivation and patient education: a role for continuous glucose monitoring. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2000;2 Suppl 1:S93–7. [PubMed: 11469640]

    No original data

  358. Kuhl C, Moller-Jensen B, Saurbrey N, Molsted-Pedersen L, Pedersen JF. Intensified insulin treatment in diabetic pregnancy. Diabetes Educ. 84;10:60–3. SPEC NO: [PubMed: 6376037]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  359. Kuntschen F, Zumsteg U. [Current technologies and strategies in the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr Suppl. 94;60:76–80. [PubMed: 8016619]

    Other reason

  360. Kurtz F. [Our experience with portable insulin pumps in young children]. Arch Pediatr. 2000;7(6):691–2. [PubMed: 10911543]

    Other reason

  361. Laatikainen L, Teramo K, Hieta-Heikurainen H, Koivisto V, Pelkonen R. A controlled study of the influence of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion treatment on diabetic retinopathy during pregnancy. Acta Med Scand. 87;221(4):367–76. [PubMed: 3300174]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  362. Laffel LM, Pratt KE, Aggarwal J, Volkening LK, Milaszewski K, Keady J, Kuhn LM. Psychosocial impact of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in type 1 diabetes (T1D) Diabetes. 2009;58

    Case series or cross-sectional

  363. Lager I, Attvall S, Blohme G, Smith U. Altered recognition of hypoglycaemic symptoms in type I diabetes during intensified control with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Diabet Med. 86;3(4):322–5. [PubMed: 2949919]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  364. Lahrache F, Lagarde F. [Quality of life and new management techniques for diabetic patients]. Soins. 2008;(725):28, 30, 32, 34. [PubMed: 18630086]

    No original data

  365. Landgraf R, Huber RM, Bachmann A, Lohr R. [Intensive insulin therapy]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2008;133(17):901–12. [PubMed: 18415916]

    Other reason

  366. Lane JT, Ferguson A, Hall J, McElligott M, Miller M, Lane PH, Pfeffer E. Glycemic control over 3 years in a young adult clinic for patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2007;78(3):385–91. [PubMed: 17602780]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  367. Langeland LL, Salvesen O, Selle H, Carlsen SM, Fougner KJ. Continuous glucose monitoring: Effect on glucose control and treatment satisfaction in diabetes mellitus type 1. Diabetologia. 2010;53:S423.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  368. Lapolla A, Dalfra MG, Masin M, Bruttomesso D, Piva I, Crepaldi C, Tortul C, Dalla Barba B, Fedele D. Analysis of outcome of pregnancy in type 1 diabetics treated with insulin pump or conventional insulin therapy. Acta Diabetol. 2003;40(3):143–9. [PubMed: 14605971]

    Observational study that does not report on macrovascular, microvascular, maternal, or fetal outcomes

  369. Larson P, Kohner EM. Caution advised when managing diabetic retinopathy by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Am J Ophthalmol. 83;95(3):404–5. [PubMed: 6829691]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  370. Lassmann-Vague V, Guerci B, Hanaire-Broutin H, Leblanc H, Renard E, Thervet F, Vague P. [Insulin pumps (portable pump for subcutaneous perfusion of insulin]. Diabete Metab. 95;21(5):371–7. [PubMed: 8586155]

    Other reason

  371. Laube H. [Intensive insulin therapy: results after ten years]. Pharm Unserer Zeit. 2001;30(1):40–5. [PubMed: 11233182]

    No original data

  372. Lauritzen T, Frost-Larsen K, Larsen HW. Metabolic regulation, retinal function and retinal morphology during one-year treatment with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (GSH) and conventional therapy (CT): A randomized prospective study. DIABETOLOGIA. 82;23(2) No. 187.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  373. Lauritzen T, Frost-Larsen K, Larsen HW, Deckert T. Metabolic regulation, retinal function and retinal morphology during one-year treatment with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and conventional therapy (CT). A randomized prospective study. ACTA ENDOCRINOL. SUPPL. 82;100(Suppl. 247):41.

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  374. Lauritzen T, Frost-Larsen K, Larsen HW, Deckert T. Two-year experience with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in relation to retinopathy and neuropathy. Diabetes. 85;34 Suppl 3:74–9. [PubMed: 4018423]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  375. Lauritzen T, Frost-Larsen K, Larsen HW, Deckert T, Keiding N, Nielsen G. Continuous subcutaneous insulin. Lancet. 83;1(8339):1445–6. [PubMed: 6134210]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  376. Lawson PM, Champion MC, Canny C, Kingsley R, White MC, Dupre J, Kohner EM. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) does not prevent progression of proliferative and preproliferative retinopathy. Br J Ophthalmol. 82;66(12):762–6. [PMC free article: PMC1039924] [PubMed: 6184071]

    No concurrent comparison group

  377. Lawson P, Trayner I, Rosenstock J, Kohner E. The effect of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion on serum lipids. Diabete Metab. 84;10(4):239–44. [PubMed: 6510544]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  378. Leblanc H, Passa Ph, Canivet J. [Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in the treatment of type I diabetes mellitus]. LE TRAITEMENT DU DIABETE DE TYPE I PAR POMPE A INSULINE. SEM. HOP. 85;61(15):975–978.

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  379. Lecavalier L, Havrankova J, Hamet P, Chiasson JL. Effects of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion versus multiple injections on insulin receptors in insulin-dependent diabetics. Diabetes Care. 87;10(3):300–5. [PubMed: 3297578]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  380. Lee IT, Liau YJ, Lee WJ, Huang CN, Sheu WH. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion providing better glycemic control and quality of life in Type 2 diabetic subjects hospitalized for marked hyperglycemia. J Eval Clin Pract. 2010;16(1):202–5. [PubMed: 20367835]

    Not in an outpatient setting

  381. Leguerrier AM, Allannic H, Lorcy Y. [Ketoacidosis during ambulatory treatment by continuous subcutaneous infusion of insulin. Possible role of catheter infection]. Presse Med. 84;13(16):1008. [PubMed: 6232520]

    Other reason

  382. Leinung M, Thompson S, Nardacci E. Benefits of continuous glucose monitor use in clinical practice. Endocr Pract. 2010;16(3):371–5. [PubMed: 20551007]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  383. Leotta S, Abbruzzese S, Altomare M, Carletti S, Fontana L, Pandolfo MM, Visalli N, Suraci C. Intensive diabetes management in type 1 diabetic patients in poor glycemic control treated with insulin pump therapy or multiple daily injections: Two years follow-up. Diabetes Technol. Ther. 2011;13(2):244–245.

    Other reason

  384. Lepercq J. Pregnancy in type 1 diabetes: insulin pump versus intensified conventional therapy. Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2005;33(11):955–6. [PubMed: 16243578]

    No original data

  385. Lepore G, Bruttomesso D, Bonomo M, Dodesini AR, Costa S, Meneghini E, Corsi A, Nosari I, Trevisan R. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion is more effective than multiple daily insulin injections in preventing albumin excretion rate increase in Type 1 diabetic patients. Diabet Med. 2009;26(6):602–8. [PubMed: 19538235]

    Does not apply to a key question

  386. Lepore G, Corsi A, Dodesini AR, Nosari I, Trevisan R. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion is better than multiple daily insulin injections in reducing glucose variability only in type 1 diabetes with good metabolic control. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(6):e81. [PubMed: 20508226]

    Does not apply to a key question

  387. Lepore G, Corsi A, Dodesini AR, Nosari I, Trevisan R. Postprandial hyperglycemia is associated with an increase of blood pressure in type 1 diabetic patients treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(7):e60. [PubMed: 17596483]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  388. Lepore G, Dodesini AR, Nosari I, Trevisan R. Age and A1C are important clinical predictors of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion efficacy in type 1 diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(7):1834–5. [PubMed: 15983352]

    No concurrent comparison group

  389. Lepore G, Dodesini AR, Nosari I, Trevisan R. Effect of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion vs multiple daily insulin injection with glargine as basal insulin: an open parallel long-term study. Diabetes Nutr Metab. 2004;17(2):84–9. [PubMed: 15244099]

    Observational study that does not report on macrovascular, microvascular, maternal, or fetal outcomes

  390. Leveno KJ, Fortunato SJ, Raskin P, Williams ML, Whalley PJ. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion during pregnancy. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 88;4(4):257–68. [PubMed: 3286165]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  391. Levy Mizrahi I, Recasens Gracia A. [The “dawn” phenomenon]. Med Clin (Barc) 85;85(10):409–11. [PubMed: 3908842]

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  392. Levy I, Bergua M, Esmatjes E, Halperin I, Figuerola D. [Unstable type I diabetes mellitus: comparative study between intensive conventional treatment and continuous subcutaneous infusion of insulin]. Med Clin (Barc) 84;83(13):525–8. [PubMed: 6392766]

    No concurrent comparison group

  393. Li YQ, Wang DQ. [Nursing of diabetic patients treated by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion]. Zhonghua Hu Li Za Zhi. 85;20(4):215–6. [PubMed: 3849992]

    No original data

  394. Liebl A. [Intraperitoneal insulin therapy. High tech for treatment of type 1 diabetes]. MMW Fortschr Med. 2000;142(21):52–4. [PubMed: 10872295]

    No original data

  395. Liouri E, Koutsovasilis A, Kounenou K, Kamaratos A, Koukouli MP, Nikolaou A, Iraklianou S, Damianaki D, Melidonis A. Intensified insulin therapy vs CSII: the influence on family cohesion and adaptability of type l diabetics. Diabetologia. 2009;52(S1):S371.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  396. Lombardo A, Scavino S, Scornavacca G. [Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus treated with subcutaneous insulin infusion pump]. TERAPIA DEL DIABETE INSULINO-DIPENDENTE CON MICROINFUSORI SOTTOCUTANEI DI INSULINA. PROG. MED. 86;42(11):649–658.

    Other reason

  397. Lombardo A, Scornavacca G, Scavino S, Oliva G, Cacciola R, Amantia L, Motta L. [Long-term insulin treatment using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusions: metabolic control and hemorheological aspects]. Minerva Endocrinol. 87;12(4):289–300. [PubMed: 3696102]

    Other reason

  398. Lombardo F, Iafusco D, Salzano G, Piscopo A, Saitta G, Pisani F, De Luca F, Prisco F. The egg or the chicken? Further data on whether good compliance to multi-injection insulin therapy should be a criterion for insulin pump therapy, or does insulin pump therapy improve compliance? J Pediatr. 2007;151(6):e23–4. [PubMed: 18035124]

    Does not apply to a key question

  399. Lorenzini F. [Insulin requirements during pregnancy]. Soins. 2006;(708):19–20. 22. [PubMed: 17024993]

    No original data

  400. Lowes L. Insulin pump therapy: Impact on QoL for children and parents. Pract. Diabetes Int. 2008;25(7):268.

    No original data

  401. Ludvigsson J, Hanas R. Continuous subcutaneous glucose monitoring improved metabolic control in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes: a controlled crossover study. Pediatrics. 2003;111(5 Pt 1):933–8. [PubMed: 12728068]

    No concurrent comparison group

  402. Ly TT, Hewitt J, Davey RJ, Lim EM, Davis EA, Jones TW. Improving epinephrine responses in hypoglycemia unawareness with real-time continuous glucose monitoring in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2010 [PMC free article: PMC3005473] [PubMed: 20929999]

    No outcome of interest

  403. Lynch P, Riedel AA, Samant N, Fan Y, Peoples T, Levinson J, Lee SW. Improved A1C by switching to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion from injection insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes: A retrospective claims analysis. Prim Care Diabetes. 2010 [PubMed: 20832374]

    No concurrent comparison group

  404. Mackowiak L. Continuous glucose monitoring--getting started. Diabetes Self Manag. 2007;24(2):15–6. 19–20. [PubMed: 17410666]

    No original data

  405. Marchin JP, O'Dorisio TM, Cataland S. Can long-term continuous subcutaneous insulin (CSII) therapy improve nerve function in type I diabetes mellitus? CLIN. RES. 82;30(4):744A.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  406. Marshall SM, Home PD, Taylor R, Alberti KG. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion versus injection therapy: a randomized cross-over trial under usual diabetic clinic conditions. Diabet Med. 87;4(6):521–5. [PubMed: 2962807]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  407. Marshall SM, Taylor R, Home PD, Alberti KG. Intermediary metabolism, insulin sensitivity and insulin receptor status under comparable long-term therapy with insulin injections and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 88;117(4):417–27. [PubMed: 3291523]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  408. Mastrototaro JJ, Gross TM. Reproducibility of the continuous glucose monitoring system matches previous reports and the intended use of the product. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(1):256. author reply 256-7. [PubMed: 12502705]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  409. Mastrototaro J, Shin J, Marcus A, Sulur G. The accuracy and efficacy of real-time continuous glucose monitoring sensor in patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2008;10(5):385–90. [PubMed: 18715215]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  410. Mattera CJ. The modern diabetic: how to handle insulin pumps during emergencies. JEMS. 2008;33(5):82–91. quiz 92. [PubMed: 18482654]

    No original data

  411. Matyka K. Optimising glycaemic control in adolescents using CGMS. Pract. Diabetes Int. 2009;26(3):90.

    No original data

  412. Maudelonde T, Menez JF, Meskar A, Tater D, Lucas D, Barbou LG, Bercovici JP. [Glycosylated proteins and control of the diabetic: use of continuous flow insulin pumps by the subcutaneous route]. Diabete Metab. 83;9(3):193–8. [PubMed: 6653857]

    No concurrent comparison group

  413. McDonald JW, Dupre J, Rodger NW, Champion MC, Webb CD, Ali M. Comparison of platelet thromboxane synthesis in diabetic patients on conventional insulin therapy and continuous insulin infusions. Thromb Res. 82;28(6):705–12. [PubMed: 6762683]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  414. McGarraugh G, Bergenstal R. Detection of hypoglycemia with continuous interstitial and traditional blood glucose monitoring using the FreeStyle Navigator Continuous Glucose Monitoring System. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2009;11(3):145–50. [PubMed: 19216686]

    Does not apply to a key question

  415. McLachlan K, Jenkins A, O'Neal D. The role of continuous glucose monitoring in clinical decision-making in diabetes in pregnancy. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2007;47(3):186–90. [PubMed: 17550484]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  416. McVean JJ, Eickhoff JC, MacDonald MJ. Factors correlating with improved A1C in children using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Diabetes Care. 2007;30(10):2499–500. [PubMed: 17586738]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  417. Mehdi SK, Hatfield E, Dornhorst A, Oliver NS. Assessment of glycemic variability in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy in type 1 diabetes related to anthropometry and complication status. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2009;3(5):1227–8. [PMC free article: PMC2769901] [PubMed: 20144442]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  418. Mesa J, Simo R, Obiols G, Faigon L, Garcia-Pascual L, Tresanchez JM. [Continuous subcutaneous infusion of insulin and intensified conventional treatment in the control of blood glucose in pregnant diabetics]. Med Clin (Barc) 87;88(19):760–3. [PubMed: 3302555]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  419. Meschi F, Beccaria L, Vanini R, Szulc M, Chiumello G. Short-term subcutaneous insulin infusion in diabetic children. Comparison with three daily insulin injections. Acta Diabetol Lat. 82;19(4):371–5. [PubMed: 6758461]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  420. Meschi F, Bonfanti R, Rigamonti A, Giulio F, Battaglino R, Viscardi M, Poscia A, Chiumello G. Patients' evaluation of nocturnal hypoglycaemia with GlucoDay continuous glucose monitoring in paediatric patients. Acta Diabetol. 2010;47(4):295–300. [PubMed: 20683627]

    Not in an outpatient setting

  421. Messer L, Ruedy K, Xing D, Coffey J, Englert K, Caswell K, Ives B. Educating families on real time continuous glucose monitoring: the DirecNet navigator pilot study experience. Diabetes Educ. 2009;35(1):124–35. [PMC free article: PMC3756565] [PubMed: 19244568]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  422. Michon N, Hamet P, Mailhot J. [Insulin pump and intensive insulin therapy]. Union Med Can. 85;114(10):845–6. [PubMed: 3909574]

    No original data

  423. Millet P, Selam JL, Boudet C. [Insulin pumps for insulin-dependent diabetics]. Annee Ther Clin Ophtalmol. 83;34:99–109. [PubMed: 6679709]

    Other reason

  424. Millet P, Selam JL, Mercadier B. [Diabetic retinopathy under treatment by insulin pump. 1st results]. Bull Soc Ophtalmol Fr. 83;83(1):135–8. [PubMed: 6872114]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  425. Minkina-Pedras M, Jarosz-Chobot P, Malecka-Tendera E, Deja G. [Assessment of metabolic control and safety of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in prepubertal children with type 1 diabetes mellitus]. Endokrynol Diabetol Chor Przemiany Materii Wieku Rozw. 2005;11(3):171–6. [PubMed: 16232370]

    Observational study that does not report on macrovascular, microvascular, maternal, or fetal outcomes

  426. Minkina-Pedras M, Jarosz-Chobot P, Polanska J, Kalina MA, Marcinkowski A, Malecka-Tendera E. Prospective assessment of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy in young children with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2009;85(2):153–8. [PubMed: 19539392]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  427. Mirouze J, Collard F, Selam JL, Pham J. Continuous blood glucose monitoring in insulin-treated diabetes. Horm. Metab. Res. 77 Suppl 7:77–88. [PubMed: 873445]

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  428. Mirouze J, Rouault R, Misse P, Millet P, Bordat B, Selam JL, Boudet C. [Diabetes and the insulin pump: functional results after 5 consecutive years of permanent use]. Bull Soc Ophtalmol Fr. 89;89(3):437–40. [PubMed: 2598391]

    Other reason

  429. Mirouze J, Selam JL, Rodier M, Lapinski H, Saeidi C, Richard JL. [Treatment of diabetes mellitus with insulin infusions]. Bull Acad Natl Med. 84;168(02-Jan):80–90. [PubMed: 6383552]

    Other reason

  430. Mitka M. Poor patient adherence may undermine aim of continuous glucose monitoring. JAMA. 2007;298(6):614–5. [PubMed: 17684176]

    No original data

  431. Mohan V, Shyamsunder R, Ramchandran A, Snehalatha C, Viswanathan M. Experience with insulin pump treatment in Indian diabetics. A preliminary report. J Assoc Physicians India. 83;31(11):715–7. [PubMed: 6671951]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  432. Moller A, Rasmussen L, Ledet T, Christiansen JS, Christensen CK, Mogensen CE, Hermansen K. Lipoprotein changes during continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 86;46(5):471–5. [PubMed: 3529352]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  433. Moller N, Schmitz OE, Mortensen HB, Mandrup-Poulsen T, Hommel EE, Parving HH, Mogensen CE. [Insulin pumps and treatment of diabetes]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2003;165(33):3167–8. author reply 3168-9. [PubMed: 12968415]

    No original data

  434. Montana E, Ricart W, Virgili N, Fernandez Castaner M. [Unstable diabetes and continuous insulin infusion pump]. Med Clin (Barc) 86;87(6):262. [PubMed: 3736265]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  435. Muchmore DB, Sharp M, Vaughn D. Successful implementation of blinded continuous glucose monitoring during a randomized clincal trial. Diabetes Technol. Ther. 2011;13(2):255.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  436. Muhlhauser I, Berger M, Sonnenberg G, Koch J, Jorgens V, Schernthaner G, Scholz V, Padagogin D. Incidence and management of severe hypoglycemia in 434 adults with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 85;8(3):268–73. [PubMed: 4006660]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  437. Murata K, Toyoda N, Ito M, Rii T, Sugiyama Y, Miyamura Y. [Assessment of self monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in diabetic pregnant women]. Nippon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi. 85;37(12):2749–57. [PubMed: 4086905]

    Other reason

  438. Murphy HR, Rayman G, Lewis K, Kelly S, Johal B, Duffield K, Fowler D, Campbell PJ, Temple RC. Effectiveness of continuous glucose monitoring in pregnant women with diabetes: randomised clinical trial. BMJ. 2008;337:a1680. [PMC free article: PMC2563261] [PubMed: 18818254]

    Not in an outpatient setting

  439. Murphy HR, Raynian G, Lewis K, Kelly S, Johal B, Duffield K, Fowler D, Campbell PJ, Temple RC. Effectiveness of continuous glucose monitoring in pregnant women with diabetes: Randomized clinical trial. Obstet. Gynecol. Surv. 2009;64(4):216–218.

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  440. Musen G, Jacobson AM, Ryan CM, Cleary PA, Waberski BH, Weinger K, Dahms W, Bayless M, Silvers N, Harth J, White N. Impact of diabetes and its treatment on cognitive function among adolescents who participated in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(10):1933–8. [PMC free article: PMC2551630] [PubMed: 18606979]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  441. Myneni A, Aldasouqi S, Page C, Weller L, Carella M, Gossain VV. Comparison of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion versus basal/bolus insulin injections for treatment of type 1 diabetes in clinical practice. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2009;3(2):403–4. [PMC free article: PMC2771523] [PubMed: 20144373]

    Observational study that does not report on macrovascular, microvascular, maternal, or fetal outcomes

  442. Nabhan ZM, Kreher NC, Greene DM, Eugster EA, Kronenberger W, DiMeglio LA. A randomized prospective study of insulin pump vs. insulin injection therapy in very young children with type 1 diabetes: 12-month glycemic, BMI, and neurocognitive outcomes. Pediatr Diabetes. 2009;10(3):202–8. [PubMed: 19140899]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  443. Nathan DM, Lou P, Avruch J. Intensive conventional and insulin pump therapies in adult type I diabetes. A crossover study. Ann Intern Med. 82;97(1):31–6. [PubMed: 7046554]

    Other reason

  444. Neeser K, Kocher S, Weber C, Heister F. CSII compared to MDI: A health economic analysis in the german health care setting. Value Health. 2009;12(7):A407.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  445. Neff K, McCarthy A, Forde R, Foley M, Coulter-Smith S, Daly S, Firth R, Byrne MM, Kinsley BT. Intensive glycaemic control in type 1 diabetic pregnancy: A comparison of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and multiple daily injection therapy. Diabetologia. 2010;53:S433.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  446. Newman SP, Cooke D, Casbard A, Walker S, Meredith S, Nunn A, Steed L, Manca A, Sculpher M, Barnard M, Kerr D, Weaver J, Ahlquist J, Hurel SJ. A randomised controlled trial to compare minimally invasive glucose monitoring devices with conventional monitoring in the management of insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (MITRE) Health Technol Assess. 2009;13(28):iii–iv. ix–xi, 1–194. [PubMed: 19476724]

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  447. Ng Tang, Fui S, Pickup JC, Bending JJ, Collins AC, Keen H, Dalton N. Hypoglycemia and counterregulation in insulin-dependent diabetic patients: a comparison of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and conventional insulin injection therapy. Diabetes Care. 86;9(3):221–7. [PubMed: 3525052]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  448. Nicolino M, Sulmont V, Bendelac N, Reznik Y, Guerci B, Renard E, Hanaire H, Jeandidier N, Raccah D. The RealTrend Study: Effect of continuous glucose monitoring on metabolic control in addition to pump therapy in poorly controlled type 1 diabetic patients. Pediatr. Diabetes. 2009;10:105.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  449. Nicolucci A, Maione A, Franciosi M, Amoretti R, Busetto E, Capani F, Bruttomesso D, Di Bartolo P, Girelli A, Leonetti F, Morviducci L, Ponzi P, Vitacolonna E. Quality of life and treatment satisfaction in adults with Type 1 diabetes: a comparison between continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and multiple daily injections. Diabet Med. 2008;25(2):213–20. [PubMed: 18201210]

    Observational study that does not report on macrovascular, microvascular, maternal, or fetal outcomes

  450. Norgaard K. [Use of insulin pumps in Denmark]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2003;165(23):2380–2. [PubMed: 12840995]

    Other reason

  451. Nosadini R, Velussi M, Fioretto P, Doria A, Avogaro A, Trevisan R, Valerio A, Vizzaccaro A, Bruscagnin A, Cernigoi A, Pascoletti R, Bernardi G, Duner E, Da Campo GL, Costella GB. Frequency of hypoglycaemic and hyperglycaemic-ketotic episodes during conventional and subcutaneous continuous insulin infusion therapy in IDDM. DIABETES NUTR. METAB. CLIN. EXP. 88;1(4):289–296.

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  452. Nosari I, Maglio ML, Lepore G, Cortinovis F, Pagani G. Is continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion more effective than intensive conventional insulin therapy in the treatment of pregnant diabetic women? DIABETES NUTR. METAB. CLIN. EXP. 93;6(1):33–37.

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  453. Noto RA, Ginsberg L, Lifshitz F, Pelcovitz D, Kaplan S. Improved management of brittle-psychosocial diabetes by use of a portable insulin infusion pump. J Pediatr. 85;107(1):100–2. [PubMed: 3891944]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  454. O'Brien B. Continuous glucose monitoring improved glycaemic control in pregnant women with diabetes and reduced infant macrosomia. Evid Based Nurs. 2009;12(2):43. [PubMed: 19321820]

    Does not apply to a key question

  455. Olivier P, Lawson M, Huot C, Richardson C, Nakhla M, Romain J. Use of the real-time continuous glucose monitor at initiation of insulin pump therapy in children and adolescents. Diabetes Technol. Ther. 2011;13(2):258.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  456. Olohan K, Zappitelli D. The insulin pump. Am J Nurs. 2003;103(4):48–56. quiz 57. [PubMed: 12677122]

    No original data

  457. Olsen BS, Johannesen J. [Insulin pump to children with type 1 diabetes. The Danish Society for Childhood and Adolescent Diabetes]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2007;169(12):1101. [PubMed: 17394812]

    Does not apply to a key question

  458. Olsen T, Ehlers N, Nielsen CB, Beck-Nielsen H. Diabetic retinopathy after one year of improved metabolic control obtained by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 85;63(3):315–9. [PubMed: 4036563]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  459. Olsen T, Richelsen B, Ehlers N, Beck-Nielsen H. Diabetic retinopathy after 3 years' treatment with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) Acta Ophthalmol (Copenh) 87;65(2):185–9. [PubMed: 3300140]

    No concurrent comparison group

  460. Olsovsky J, Beranek M. [The influence of long-term therapy with the insulin pump (CSII) in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus on metabolic compensation and on the incidence of hypoglycaemia. Comparison with intensified conventional insulin therapy (MDI)]. Vnitr Lek. 2007;53(6):637–45. [PubMed: 17702123]

    Other reason

  461. Orsoni-Dupont C. [Insulin pump in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy]. Bull Soc Ophtalmol Fr. 82;82(12):1547–52. [PubMed: 6892213]

    Other reason

  462. Orsoni-Dupont C. [Results of diabetic retinopathy following 2 years of treatment with a permanent insulin pump]. Bull Mem Soc Fr Ophtalmol. 83;95:494–9. [PubMed: 6677370]

    Other reason

  463. Overby NC, Margeirsdottir HD, Brunborg C, Andersen LF, Dahl-Jorgensen K. The influence of dietary intake and meal pattern on blood glucose control in children and adolescents using intensive insulin treatment. Diabetologia. 2007;50(10):2044–51. [PubMed: 17687538]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  464. Ozmen B, Boyvada S. Can self-monitoring blood glucose control decrease glycated hemoglobin levels in diabetes mellitus. Endocrinologist. 2002;12(4):349–356.

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  465. Page C. Insulin pump therapy. Tenn Med. 2000;93(11):410–4. [PubMed: 11077887]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  466. Palmer AJ, Roze S, Valentine WJ, Spinas G, Scuffham PA, Carr L. The cost-effectiveness of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion compared with multiple daily injections for the management of diabetes: Response to Schuffman and Carr [1] (multiple letters) Diabetic Med. 2004;21(12):1372–1373. [PubMed: 15569145]

    No original data

  467. Pankowska E, Lipka M, Szypowska A. Insulin therapy and pump therapy in pediatric patients: Insulinoterapia i osobiste pompy insulinowe w praktyce pediatrycznej. Prz. Pediatr. 2003;33(2):158–164.

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  468. Paris CA, Imperatore G, Klingensmith G, Petitti D, Rodriguez B, Anderson AM, Schwartz ID, Standiford DA, Pihoker C. Predictors of insulin regimens and impact on outcomes in youth with type 1 diabetes: the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. J Pediatr. 2009;155(2):183–9.e1. [PubMed: 19394043]

    Other reason

  469. Perelygina AA, Antsiferov MV, Starostina EG. [Experience with using automated insulin infusion systems in diabetes mellitus type 1]. Sov Med. 88;(5):72–5. [PubMed: 3212534]

    Other reason

  470. Perrin N. [The diabetic child and insulin therapy at home (insulin therapy via portable pump)]. Soins Gynecol Obstet Pueric Pediatr. 85;(51-52):23–6. [PubMed: 3852467]

    No original data

  471. Peters A. Do we really need continuous glucose monitoring? Diabetes Technol Ther. 2009;11 Suppl 1:S128–30. [PubMed: 19469672]

    No original data

  472. Peterson K, Zapletalova J, Kudlova P, Matuskova V, Bartek J, Novotny D, Chlup R. Benefits of three-month continuous glucose monitoring for persons with diabetes using insulin pumps and sensors. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2009;153(1):47–51. [PubMed: 19365526]

    Observational study that does not report on macrovascular, microvascular, maternal, or fetal outcomes

  473. Peyrot M, Rubin RR. Validity and reliability of an instrument for assessing health-related quality of life and treatment preferences: the Insulin Delivery System Rating Questionnaire. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(1):53–8. [PubMed: 15616233]

    No outcome of interest

  474. Pfeiffer EF. [Glucose sensors in tissue, glucose monitoring and controlled insulin administration]. Med Klin (Munich) 1996;91 Suppl 1:5–12. [PubMed: 8839105]

    No original data

  475. Pfeiffer EF. Artificial pancreas, glucose sensors and the impact upon diabetology. Int J Artif Organs. 93;16(9):636–44. [PubMed: 8294155]

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  476. Pham DQ, Iyer KV, Woodring H, Vuu R, McArthru L. Insulin pump therapy and continuous glucose monitoring. 2011;77(2)

    No original data

  477. Pickup J, Keen H. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in type 1 diabetes. BMJ. 2001;322(7297):1262–3. [PMC free article: PMC1120370] [PubMed: 11375216]

    No original data

  478. Pickup JC, Bending JJ, Collins AC, Keen H. Reversal of insulin resistance in type I diabetes after treatment with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 84;288(6419):796–7. [PMC free article: PMC1444646] [PubMed: 6423087]

    No outcome of interest

  479. Pickup JC, Keen H, Parsons JA, Alberti KGMM. The use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion to achieve normoglycaemia in diabetic patients. DIABETOLOGIA. 77;13(4) No. 259.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  480. Pickup JC, Keen H, Viberti GC, White MC, Kohner EM, Parsons JA, Alberti KG. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 80;3(2):290–300. [PubMed: 6993143]

    No original data

  481. Pickup JC, Sherwin RS, Tamborlane WV, Rizza RA, Service FJ. Conference on insulin pump therapy in diabetes. Multicenter study of effect on microvascular disease. The pump life. Patient responses and clinical and technological problems. Diabetes. 85;34 Suppl 3:37–41. [PubMed: 3894127]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  482. Pickup J, Williams G, Johns P, Keen H. Clinical features of brittle diabetic patients unresponsive to optimized subcutaneous insulin therapy (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion) Diabetes Care. 83;6(3):279–84. [PubMed: 6409572]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  483. Pietri AO, Dunn FL, Grundy SM, Raskin P. The effect of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion on very-low-density lipoprotein triglyceride metabolism in type I diabetes mellitus. Diabetes. 83;32(1):75–81. [PubMed: 6848399]

    No concurrent comparison group

  484. Pietri A, Dunn FL, Raskin P. The effect of improved diabetic control on plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels: a comparison of conventional therapy and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Diabetes. 80;29(12):1001–5. [PubMed: 7002668]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  485. Pinget M. [Treatment with portable insulin pump for diabetics in 2002]. Journ Annu Diabetol Hotel Dieu. 2002:143–57. [PubMed: 12525139]

    No original data

  486. Pinget M, Selam JL, Dorner M, Mirouze J. [Prolonged treatment of diabetes mellitus with the portable insulin pump. Value of a 100 IU/ml concentrated insulin preparation]. Presse Med. 83;12(32):2000. [PubMed: 6225109]

    Other reason

  487. Pistrosch F. Self-monitoring of blood glucose and continuous glucose monitoring: Blutzuckerselbstkontrolle und kontinuierliches glukosemonitoring. Diabetes Stoffwechsel Herz. 2008;17(5):420–421.

    No original data

  488. Podgorski G, Taton J, Czech A, Laz R, Szalkiewicz G. [Comparison of the effectiveness of conventional and intensive insulin therapy in the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 1 in pregnant women or those planning pregnancy]. Pol Tyg Lek. 87;42(50):1571–6. [PubMed: 3330793]

    Other reason

  489. Poli M, Spotti D, Bosi E. Single or multiple daily insulin injections and CSII in diabetes mellitus. DIABETOLOGIA. 81;21(3):412.

    No concurrent comparison group

  490. Pollom RD. Importance of daily plasma glucose control in type 2 diabetes. J Fam Pract. 2009;58(8 Suppl):S10–7. [PubMed: 19679026]

    No original data

  491. Polonsky KS, Byrne MM, Sturis J. Alternative insulin delivery systems: how demanding should the patient be? Diabetologia. 97;40 Suppl 2:S97–101. [PubMed: 9248709]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  492. Poussier P, Reach G, Marre M, Assan R. [Prospects opened by the insulin pump]. Nouv Presse Med. 81;10(17):1377–9. [PubMed: 7015269]

    Other reason

  493. Pozzilli P, Crino A, Schiaffini R, Manfrini S, Fioriti E, Coppolino G, Pitocco D, Visalli N, Corbi S, Spera S, Suraci C, Cervoni M, Matteoli MC, Patera IP, Ghirlanda G. A 2-year pilot trial of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion versus intensive insulin therapy in patients with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes (IMDIAB 8) Diabetes Technol Ther. 2003;5(6):965–74. [PubMed: 14709198]

    Other reason

  494. Prendergast JJ, Dorsey C, Elsea V. Over-delivery of insulin by insulin pumps. Diabetes Care. 95;18(8):1201–2. [PubMed: 7587864]

    No original data

  495. Pryce R. [Diabetic ketoacidosis by exposure of insulin pump to heat and sunlight]. Praxis (Bern 1994) 2009;98(10):543–5. [PubMed: 19424950]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  496. Przybyszewski B, Czerwionka-Szaflarska M, Zbikowska-Bojko M. Quality of life in children and youth with type 1 diabetes receiving continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion: Analiza jakosci zycia dzieci i mlodziezy chorych na cukrzyce typu 1 leczonych za pomoca ciaglego podskornego wlewu insuliny. Pediatr. Pol. 2008;83(1):54–62.

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  497. Rabbone I, Bobbio A, Di Gianni V, Sacchetti C, Cerutti F. Intensive insulin therapy in preschool-aged diabetic children: from multiple daily injections to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion through indwelling catheters. J Endocrinol Invest. 2008;31(3):193–5. [PubMed: 18401199]

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  498. Raccah D, Sulmont V, Reznick Y, Guerci B, Renard E, Hanaire H, Jeandidier N, Nicolino M. The realtrend study: Effect on metabolic control in poorly controlled type 1 diabetes using properly the paradigm REAL-time system vs. conventional blood glucose self-monitoring and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Diabetes. 2009;58

    Case series or cross-sectional

  499. Raccah D, Sulmont V, Reznik Y, Guerci B, Renard E, Hanaire H, Jeandidier N, Nicolino M. The RealTrend study: Effect of continuous glucose monitoring on metabolic control in addition to pump therapy in poorly controlled type 1 diabetic patients. Diabetologia. 2009;52(S1):S43.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  500. Raile K, Noelle V, Landgraf R, Schwarz HP. Weight in adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus during continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2002;15(5):607–12. [PubMed: 12014519]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  501. Ramchandani N, Saadon Y, Jornsay D. Real-time glucose monitoring. Am J Nurs. 2010;110(4):60–3. [PubMed: 20335693]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  502. Rami B, Nachbaur E, Waldhoer T, Schober E. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in toddlers. Eur J Pediatr. 2003;162(10):721–2. [PubMed: 12928895]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  503. Raskin P. Treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with portable insulin infusion devices. Med Clin North Am. 82;66(6):1269–83. [PubMed: 6755094]

    No original data

  504. Raz I, Koffler M, Leitersdorf E, Bar-On H. Maintenance of ambulatory diabetic patients on subcutaneous insulin pump. Isr J Med Sci. 84;20(8):731–5. [PubMed: 6469600]

    No concurrent comparison group

  505. Reali MF, Festini F, Neri AS, Taccetti G, Repetto T, Chiarelli F, Toni S. Use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in cystic fibrosis patients with cystic fibrosis-related diabetes awaiting transplantation. J Cyst Fibros. 2006;5(1):67–8. [PubMed: 16233992]

    Other reason

  506. Reeves ML, Seigler DE, Ryan E. Comparison of intensified conventional therapy and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in outpatient management of type 1 (insulin dependent) diabetes mellitus. DIABETOLOGIA. 81;21(5):512–513.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  507. Reeves ML, Seigler DE, Ryan EA, Skyler JS. Glycemic control in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Comparison of outpatient intensified conventional therapy with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Am J Med. 82;72(4):673–80. [PubMed: 7041646]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  508. Regal H, Koivisto VA, Maury CP, Irsigler K. No sign of amyloidosis in pump-treated diabetics. Diabetes Res. 88;8(4):195–9. [PubMed: 3069282]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  509. Reichel A, Schwarz J, Schulze J, Licinio J, Wong ML, Bornstein SR. Depression and anxiety symptoms in diabetic patients on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) Mol Psychiatry. 2005;10(11):975–6. [PubMed: 16077680]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  510. Reichel G, Felsing U, Felsing W, Rabending G. The influence of CSII treatment on the function of the peripheral and visceral nerves in type I diabetics. Exp Clin Endocrinol. 85;85(1):113–9. [PubMed: 3987830]

    No concurrent comparison group

  511. Renard E, et al. Quality of life in diabetic patients treated by insulin pumps. QOL newsletter. 2002;28:11–13.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  512. Renard E. Closed-loop insulin delivery: is the Holy Grail near? Lancet. 2010;375(9716):702–3. [PubMed: 20138356]

    No original data

  513. Renard E, Farret A, Melki V, Schaepelynck P, Riveline JP, Chaillous L, Sola A, Penfornis A, Charpentier G. Patient- or physician-driven continuous glucose monitoring improves control for one year in poorly-controlled type 1 diabetes under basal-bolus insulin regimen. Diabetes Technol. Ther. 2011;13(2):192.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  514. Retnakaran R, DeVries JH, Hanaire-Broutin H, Heine RJ, Melki V, Zinman B. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion versus multiple daily injections: modeling predicted benefits in relationship to baseline A1c. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(7):1835–6. [PubMed: 15983353]

    No concurrent comparison group

  515. Rewers M, Pihoker C, Donaghue K, Hanas R, Swift P, Klingensmith GJ. Assessment and monitoring of glycemic control in children and adolescents with diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes. 2009;10 Suppl 12:71–81. [PubMed: 19754620]

    No original data

  516. Rigla M, Hernando ME, Gomez EJ, Brugues E, Garcia-Saez G, Capel I, Pons B, de Leiva A. Real-time continuous glucose monitoring together with telemedical assistance improves glycemic control and glucose stability in pump-treated patients. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2008;10(3):194–9. [PubMed: 18473693]

    Other reason

  517. Risse JF, Boissonnot M, Marechaud R, Benois E, Sudre Y. [Rapid deterioration of diabetic retinopathy and treatment using an insulin pump]. Bull Soc Ophtalmol Fr. 88;88(5):679–80. 681–3. [PubMed: 3067893]

    Other reason

  518. Rizza RA, Gerich JE, Haymond MW, Westland RE, Hall LD, Clemens AH, Service FJ. Control of blood sugar in insulin-dependent diabetes: comparison of an artificial endocrine pancreas, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, and intensified conventional insulin therapy. N Engl J Med. 80;303(23):1313–8. [PubMed: 7001229]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  519. Robertson C. When your patient is on an insulin pump. RN. 98;61(3):30–3. quiz 34. [PubMed: 9544091]

    No original data

  520. Robertson D. Understanding insulins: new developments. Br J Hosp Med (Lond) 2008;69(1):M2–5. [PubMed: 18293725]

    No original data

  521. Rodbard D, Garg S, Jovanovic L. Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) reduces glucose variability and improves glycaemic control in patients using Multiple Daily Injections (MDI) or insulin pumps. Diabetologia. 2009;52(S1):S364–S365.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  522. Rodbard D, Jovanovic L, Garg S. Impact of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) on glycemic variability and control in subjects with type 1 diabetes using multiple daily injections (MDI) vs insulin pump. Diabetes. 2009;58

    Case series or cross-sectional

  523. Rodbard D, Jovanovic L, Garg SK. Responses to continuous glucose monitoring in subjects with type 1 diabetes using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion or multiple daily injections. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2009;11(12):757–65. [PubMed: 20001676]

    Observational study that does not report on macrovascular, microvascular, maternal, or fetal outcomes

  524. Rodger NW, Dupre J. Efficacy of continuous subcutaneous infusion of sulfated beef insulin. Diabetes Care. 83;6(6):620–1. [PubMed: 6653322]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  525. Rodger NW, Behme MT, Dupre J, Chamberlain MJ. Metabolic effects of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion: evidence that a rise and fall of portal vein insulin concentration with each major meal facilitates post-absorptive glycemic control. Clin Invest Med. 88;11(3):167–86. [PubMed: 3042215]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  526. Rodger NW, Dupre J, Canny CL, Brown WF. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in adults: glycemic advantage is predicted by venous plasma C-peptide concentrations. Diabetes Care. 85;8(5):447–55. [PubMed: 3902423]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  527. Rodriguez Rodriguez F, Ramirez Garcia O, Del Otero Sanz L, Lopez Alonso A, Angel Garcia, Hernandez J. Continuous insulin infusion versus multiple daily injections in pregnant with type 1 diabetes. J. Matern.-Fetal Neonatal Med. 2010;23:539.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  528. Roemer JB. Tips and tools for insulin pump use. Diabetes Self Manag. 2009;26(4):46, 48–51. [PubMed: 19725401]

    No original data

  529. Roloff M, Augspach R, Kashiwagi S. [Long term observations on diabetic polyneuropathy during continuous sc insulin infusion therapy]. LANGZEITBEOBACHTUNG DER DIABETISCHEN POLYNEUROPATHIE UNTER DER BEHANDLUNG MIT DER KONTINUIERLICHEN SUBCUTANEN INSULININFUSION (CSII) AKTUEL. ENDOKRINOL. STOFFWECHSEL. 82;3(2):72–73.

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  530. Roman G. Insulin pump therapy in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Rom J Intern Med. 2004;42(2):465–8. [PubMed: 15529637]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  531. Romero GS, Clarke WL. Another complication associated with CSII systems. Diabetes Care. 88;11(4):370. [PubMed: 3402297]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  532. Rosenstock J, Strowig S, Cercone S, Raskin P. Reduction in cardiovascular risk factors with intensive diabetes treatment in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 87;10(6):729–34. [PubMed: 3322730]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  533. Rouxel E, Banchereau M, Banchereau A, Combe M. [Indications and monitoring of insulin pumps at the Hospital Center in Mans]. Bull Soc Ophtalmol Fr. 89;89(11):1307–14. [PubMed: 2630136]

    Other reason

  534. Rubin RR, Peyrot M. Treatment satisfaction and quality of life for an integrated continuous glucose monitoring/insulin pump system compared to self-monitoring plus an insulin pump. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2009;3(6):1402–10. [PMC free article: PMC2787041] [PubMed: 20144395]

    Observational study that does not report on macrovascular, microvascular, maternal, or fetal outcomes

  535. Rubin RR, Peyrot M, Chen X, Frias JP. Patient-Reported Outcomes from a 16-Week Open-Label, Multicenter Study of Insulin Pump Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2010 [PubMed: 20879963]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  536. Rubio Cabezas O, Argente Oliver J. [Treatment with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus]. An Pediatr (Barc) 2006;64(6):600–1. 601–2. author reply. [PubMed: 16792974]

    No original data

  537. Rudolf MC, Sherwin RS, Markowitz R, Bates SE, Genel M, Hochstadt J, Tamborlane WV. Effect of intensive insulin treatment on linear growth in the young diabetic patient. J Pediatr. 82;101(3):333–9. [PubMed: 7050326]

    No concurrent comparison group

  538. Ruxer J, Mozdzan M, Czupryniak L, Saryusz-Wolska M, Loba J. [Effectiveness of selected methods of the short-term intensive insulin therapy in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus]. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2004;112(2):945–52. [PubMed: 15675270]

    Other reason

  539. Ryff AS, Berger W, Crausaz F. [Type I diabetes mellitus: insulin treatment]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr Suppl. 1994;60:7–13. [PubMed: 8016617]

    Other reason

  540. Sachse G, Neuzner J, Federlin K. [Effect of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion on diabetic autonomic neuropathy of the cardiovascular system]. EINFLUSS DER KONTINUIERLICHEN SUBKUTANEN INSULINZUFUHR AUF DIE AUTONOME DIABETISCHE NEUROPATHIE DES KARDIOVASKULAREN SYSTEMS (ADNCS) AKTUEL. ENDOKRINOL. STOFFWECHSEL. 82;3(2):66.

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  541. Sachse G, Neuzner J, Federlin K. [Effect of long-term continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion on autonomic neuropathy of the cardiovascular system in type-I diabetics]. EINFLUSZ EINER LANGERFRISTIGEN KONTINUIERLICHEN SUBKUTANEN INSULINZUFUHR AUF DIE AUTONOME DIABETISCHE NEUROPATHIE DES KA. VERH. DTSCH. GES. INN. MED. 83;89:718–721.

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  542. Sachse G, Neuzner J, Maser E, Federlin K. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy (CSII) influences cardiovascular responses to graded exercise in patients with autonomic diabetic neuropathy of the cardiovascular system (ADNCS) Life Support Syst. 85;3 Suppl 1:530–4. [PubMed: 3870617]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  543. Sachse S, Neuzner J, Federlin K. [Effect of a longterm continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy on peripheral diabetic neuropathy]. EINFLUSS EINER LANGERFRISTIGEN KONTINUIERLICHEN SUBKUTANEN INSULININFUSIONSTHERAPIE AUF DIE PERIPHERE DIABETISCHE NEUROPATHIE. VERH. DTSCH. GES. INN. MED. 84;90II:1464–1466.

    No concurrent comparison group

  544. Sadler CE, Einhorn D. Office logistics: implementation of the continuous glucose monitoring system in clinical practice. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2000;2 Suppl 1:S89–91. [PubMed: 11469639]

    No original data

  545. Saeidi S, Selam JL, Georgescu G, Mirouze J. [Effect of insulin pump therapy on clinical and electrical signs of diabetic neuropathy]. Presse Med. 85;14(20):1151. [PubMed: 3158983]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  546. Saha MT, Huupponen T, Komulainen J. [Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion as a treatment of diabetes in children and adolescents]. Duodecim. 98;114(14):1410–5. [PubMed: 11552249]

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  547. Sahin SB, Cetinkalp S, Ozgen AG, Saygili F, Yilmaz C. The importance of anti-insulin antibody in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion or multiple daily insulin injections therapy. Acta Diabetol. 2010;47(4):325–30. [PubMed: 20842389]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  548. Saibene V, Melandri M, Brembilla L. Comparison between multi-injection and continuous subcutaneous insulin therapy in insulin-dependent diabetic patients. ACTA DIABETOL. LAT. 81;18(1):45–50. [PubMed: 7010856]

    Not in an outpatient setting

  549. Saigi I, Chico A, Santos L, Aulinas A, Adelantado J, Ginovart G, Garcia-Patterson A, Corcoy R. Glycaemic control and perinatal outcomes of pregnancies complicated by type 1 diabetes: Multiple daily injections vs continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Diabetologia. 2009;52(S1):S46.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  550. Samuelsson A, Franzen I, Ludvigsson J, Samuelsson U. [Children and adolescents with insulin pump treated diabetes mellitus type 1. Better metabolic control can be achieved. Active education and frequent contacts are required]. Lakartidningen. 2002;99(10):1051–2. 1055. [PubMed: 12024778]

    Other reason

  551. Samuelsson U, Hanas R, Whiss PA, Ludvigsson J. Do high blood glucose peaks contribute to higher HbA1c? Results from repeated continuous glucose measurements in children. World J. Pediatrics. 2008;4(3):215–221. [PubMed: 18822932]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  552. Sanchez I. The use of continuous glucose monitoring system in the home health setting. Home Healthc Nurse. 2010;28(5):291–5. 296–7. quiz. [PubMed: 20463512]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  553. Sane T, Tulokas T, Nikkanen P, Heikkila P, Huttunen E, Niskanen L. [Insulin pump in the treatment of adult age diabetes]. Duodecim. 2005;121(8):839–45. [PubMed: 15931827]

    Other reason

  554. Sasaki T, Tajima N. [Type 1 diabetes mellitus]. Nippon Rinsho. 2006 Suppl 3:26–30. [PubMed: 17022494]

    Other reason

  555. Sauer H. [Intensive insulin therapy with reference to portable insulin infusion devices]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 85;110(23):925–8. [PubMed: 3888595]

    No original data

  556. Saurbrey N, Arnold-Larsen S, Moller-Jensen B, Kuhl C. Comparison of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion with multiple insulin injections using the NovoPen. Diabet Med. 88;5(2):150–3. [PubMed: 2964981]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  557. Savinetti-Rose B, Bolmer L. Understanding continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy. Am J Nurs. 97;97(3):42–8. quiz 48-9. [PubMed: 9055761]

    No original data

  558. Scaramuzza AE, Iafusco D, Rabbone I, Bonfanti R, Lombardo F, Schiaffini R, Buono P, Toni S, Cherubini V, Zuccotti GV. Use of integrated real-time continuous glucose monitoring/insulin pump system in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a 3-year follow-up study. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2011;13(2):99–103. [PubMed: 21284475]

    Observational study that does not report on macrovascular, microvascular, maternal, or fetal outcomes

  559. Scaramuzza A, Iafusco D, Lombardo F, Rabbone I, Toni S. Adolescent use of insulin and patient-controlled analgesia pump technology: a 10-year food and drug administration retrospective study of adverse events. Pediatrics. 2008;122(2):473–4. author reply 474. [PubMed: 18676571]

    No original data

  560. Scheen A, Henrivaux P, Jandrain B, Luyckx AS, Lefebvre PJ. Lack of systematic metabolic alterations after a one-hour interruption of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in type I diabetic patients. Diabetes Care. 85;8(6):621–3. [PubMed: 3908029]

    No concurrent comparison group

  561. Scheidegger U, Allemann S, Scheidegger K, Diem P. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy: effects on quality of life. Swiss Med Wkly. 2007;137(33-34):476–82. [PubMed: 17990132]

    No concurrent comparison group

  562. Scheiner G. Continuous glucose monitoring. Making sense of your numbers. Diabetes Self Manag. 2008;25(3):42, 44, 48–50. [PubMed: 18686317]

    No concurrent comparison group

  563. Schiaffini R, Ciampalini P, Spera S, Cappa M, Crino A. An observational study comparing continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and insulin glargine in children with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2005;21(4):347–52. [PubMed: 15619291]

    Observational study that does not report on macrovascular, microvascular, maternal, or fetal outcomes

  564. Schiffrin A, Belmonte MM. Comparison between continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and multiple injections of insulin. A one-year prospective study. Diabetes. 82;31(3):255–64. [PubMed: 6759242]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  565. Schiffrin AD, Desrosiers M, Aleyassine H, Belmonte MM. Intensified insulin therapy in the type I diabetic adolescent: a controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 84;7(2):107–13. [PubMed: 6376006]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  566. Schiffrin A. Nighttime continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion revisited: a strategy for improving insulin delivery. Diabetes Care. 2000;23(5):571–3. [PubMed: 10834409]

    No original data

  567. Schiffrin A, Desrosiers M, Moffatt M, Belmonte MM. Feasibility of strict diabetes control in insulin-dependent diabetic adolescents. J Pediatr. 83;103(4):522–7. [PubMed: 6352883]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  568. Schiffrin A, Parikh S, Marliss EB, Desrosiers MM. Metabolic response to fasting exercise in adolescent insulin-dependent diabetic subjects treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and intensive conventional therapy. Diabetes Care. 84;7(3):255–60. [PubMed: 6376018]

    Less than 24 hours of usage

  569. Schmitz A, Christiansen JS, Christensen CK, Hermansen K, Mogensen CE. Effect of pump versus pen treatment on glycaemic control and kidney function in long-term uncomplicated insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) Dan Med Bull. 89;36(2):176–8. [PubMed: 2651031]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  570. Schmitz O, Sorensen SS, Alberti KG, Orskov H, Hansen HE. Metabolic control in newly kidney transplanted insulin-dependent diabetics: improvement by insulin pump treatment (CSII) J Diabet Complications. 87;1(3):81–6. [PubMed: 2969910]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  571. Schutt M, Kern W, Krause U, Busch P, Dapp A, Grziwotz R, Mayer I, Rosenbauer J, Wagner C, Zimmermann A, Kerner W, Holl RW. Is the frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose related to long-term metabolic control? Multicenter analysis including 24,500 patients from 191 centers in Germany and Austria. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2006;114(7):384–8. [PubMed: 16915542]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  572. Schwedes U. [Insulin therapy with pens and pumps]. Med Klin (Munich) 96;91 Suppl 1:16. [PubMed: 8839106]

    No original data

  573. Scott RS. Insulin pumps and other recent advances with insulin delivery in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. N Z Med J. 85;98(781):485–7. [PubMed: 3859773]

    No original data

  574. Segato T, Midena E, Piermarocchi S, Crepaldi G, Tiengo A. The effect of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion treatment on proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 82;94(5):685–6. [PubMed: 6756157]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  575. Seigler DE, LaGreca A, Citrin WS, Reeves ML, Skyler JS. Psychological effects of intensification of diabetic control. Diabetes Care. 82;5 Suppl 1:19–23. [PubMed: 6765119]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  576. Selam JL, Haardt MJ, Berne C, Slama G. [Current role of external pumps in the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus]. Diabete Metab. 95;21(5):378–82. [PubMed: 8586156]

    Other reason

  577. Selam JL, Millet P, Zaluski S, Mirouze J. [Beneficial effect of insulin therapy by pump on the development of diabetic retinopathy]. Journ Annu Diabetol Hotel Dieu. 85:87–100. [PubMed: 2577980]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  578. Senniappan S, Hine P, Tang W, Campbell J, Bone M, Sankar V, Robinson M, Smith C, Cooper C, Amin R. The effect of socioeconomic deprivation on efficacy of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion: a retrospective paediatric case-controlled survey. Eur J Pediatr. 2011 [PubMed: 21594576]

    Does not apply to a key question

  579. Sensi S, Capani F. [Treatment of type 1 diabetes with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion system. Preliminary report on neuropathy]. TRATTAMENTO DEL DIABETE DI TIPO 1 CON IL MICROINFUSORE INSULINICO. PRELIMINARI ESPERIENZE SULLA NEUROPATIA. G. ITAL. DIABETOL. 82;2(3):283–289.

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  580. Service FJ, Rizza RA, Gerich JE. Infusion-pump treatment of diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 79;301(5):267–8. [PubMed: 449996]

    No original data

  581. Seshiah V. A rapid and simple method to control hyperglycaemia. J Assoc Physicians India. 90;38(4):309–10. [PubMed: 2257012]

    Other reason

  582. Shalitin S, Gil M, Nimri R, de Vries L, Gavan MY, Phillip M. Predictors of glycaemic control in patients with Type 1 diabetes commencing continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy. Diabet Med. 2010;27(3):339–47. [PubMed: 20536498]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  583. Shamoon H, Duffy H, Fleischer N, Engel S, Saenger P, Strelzyn M, Litwak M, Wylie-Rosett J, Farkash A, Geiger D, Engel H, Fleischman J, Pompi D, Ginsberg N, Glover M, Brisman M, Walker E, Thomashunis A, Gonzalez J. The effect of intensive treatment of diabetes on the development and progression of long-term complications in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. NEW ENGL. J. MED. 93;329(14):977–986.

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  584. Shanmugasundaram M, Rogers H, Marks P, Jain A, Marsh MS, Gayle C, Amiel SA, Choudhary P. Conversion of pregnant patients with type 1 diabetes from multiple injection therapy to continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in early pregnancy is safe and efficacious. Diabetologia. 2010;53:S433.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  585. Shepherd G, Champion M, Rodger NW, Dupre J. Blood glucose during continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. CLIN. RES. 78;26(6):865A.

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  586. Shichiri M, Kawamori R, Goriya Y, Kikuchi M, Bando K, Abe H. Evidence of beneficial effects of strict glycemic control on diabetic vascular complications--a prospective study with artificial devices. Tohoku J Exp Med. 83;141(Suppl):719–22. [PubMed: 6680548]

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  587. Shu J, Zeng LY, Mu PW, Wang MM, Zhang GC, Chen YM. [Cost-effectiveness analysis on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and multi-point daily insulin injections in the treatment program of type 2 diabetes]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2009;30(7):737–9. [PubMed: 19957604]

    Not in an outpatient setting

  588. Siegel-Czarkowski L, Herold KC, Goland RS. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in older patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(12):3022–3. [PubMed: 15562235]

    No concurrent comparison group

  589. Sieradzki J. [Comparative pharmacodynamic studies of insulin Maxirapid Polfa and Actrapid MC Novo using Biostator GCIIS]. Pol Tyg Lek. 84;39(18):615–7. [PubMed: 6399370]

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  590. Simmons D, Thompson CF, Conroy C, Scott DJ. Use of insulin pumps in pregnancies complicated by type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes in a multiethnic community. Diabetes Care. 2001;24(12):2078–82. [PubMed: 11723086]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  591. Simon B, Treat V, Marco C, Rosenberg D, Joseph J, Hipszer B, Li Y, Chervoneva I, Padron-Massara L, Jabbour S. A comparison of glycaemic variability in CSII vs. MDI treated type 1 diabetic patients using CGMS. Int J Clin Pract. 2008;62(12):1858–63. [PubMed: 19166434]

    Observational study that does not report on macrovascular, microvascular, maternal, or fetal outcomes

  592. Skyler JS. The economic burden of diabetes and the benefits of improved glycemic control: the potential role of a continuous glucose monitoring system. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2000;2 Suppl 1:S7–12. [PubMed: 11469636]

    No original data

  593. Skyler JS, Seigler DE, Reeves ML. A comparison of insulin regimens in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care. 1982;5 Suppl 1:8–11. [PubMed: 6765118]

    No original data

  594. Sleightholm MA, Gallimore R, Tennent GA, Rowe IF, Kohner EM, Pepys MB. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion does not provoke significant acute-phase response. Diabetes Care. 86;9(1):50–2. [PubMed: 3512207]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  595. Slijper FM, De Beaufort CE, Bruining GJ, De Visser JJ, Aarsen RS, Kicken DA, Van Strik R. Psychological impact of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pump therapy in non-selected newly diagnosed insulin dependent (type 1) diabetic children: evaluation after two years of therapy. Diabete Metab. 90;16(4):273–7. [PubMed: 2265733]

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  596. Smart CE, Ross K, Edge JA, Collins CE, Colyvas K, King BR. Children and adolescents on intensive insulin therapy maintain postprandial glycaemic control without precise carbohydrate counting. Diabet Med. 2009;26(3):279–85. [PubMed: 19317823]

    Not in an outpatient setting

  597. Solal PC, Bertoglio J, Cupelli C. [Evaluation after one year of portable insulin infusion pumps]. Soins. 2004;(688):21–2. [PubMed: 15515843]

    Other reason

  598. Soltesz G, Molnar D, Decsi T, Hamar A, Klujber L. [Portable insulin pump treatment of diabetic children]. Orv Hetil. 88;129(12):601–4. 607. [PubMed: 3362545]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  599. Sonnenberg GE, Schroer G, Chantelau EA. Long-term treatment of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. DIABETOLOGIA. 82;23(2) No. 284.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  600. Sonnenberg GE, Schroer G, Chantelau E, Berger M. [Long term treatment of type I diabetics with continuous sc insulin infusion]. LANGZEITBEHANDLUNG DES TYP-I DIABETIKERS MIT DER KONTINUIERLICHEN SUBKUTANEN INSULININFUSION (CSII) AKTUEL. ENDOKRINOL. STOFFWECHSEL. 82;3(2):72.

    No concurrent comparison group

  601. Speight J, Shaw JA. Does one size really fit all? Only by considering individual preferences and priorities will the true impact of insulin pump therapy on quality of life be determined. Diabet Med. 2007;24(7):693–5. [PubMed: 17596240]

    No original data

  602. Staehr Johansen K. Multicentre continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion pump feasibility and acceptability study experience. G. ITAL. DIABETOL. 90;10(SUPPL.):55–61.

    Does not apply to a key question

  603. Stam G. [Experience with the portable insulin infusion pumps]. Tijdschr Ziekenverpl. 82;35(6):183–5. [PubMed: 6919313]

    Other reason

  604. Sternberg F, Hoss U, Salgado M, Pfeiffer EF. Self-monitoring of blood glucose compared with continuous tissue glucose measurement. Diabetes Care. 97;20(7):1208–1209. [PubMed: 9203468]

    No original data

  605. Strickland AL, Strickland J. An outpatient technique for continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in adolescents and young adults with IDDM. J S C Med Assoc. 2000;96(9):386–9. [PubMed: 11043015]

    No concurrent comparison group

  606. Sulmont V, Souchon PF, Gouillard-Darnaud C, Fartura A, Salmon-Musial AS, Lambrecht E, Mauran P, Abely M. Metabolic control in children with diabetes mellitus who are younger than 6 years at diagnosis: continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion as a first line treatment? J Pediatr. 2010;157(1):103–7. [PubMed: 20227730]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  607. Sundberg F, Forsander G. Overweight and glycaemic control in young children with T1DM. Pediatr. Diabetes. 2009;10:49–50.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  608. Svacina S, Masek Z, Pav J, Kabrt J, Hovorka R, Ponka J. [The insulin pump in type II diabetics]. Vnitr Lek. 88;34(2):146–52. [PubMed: 3284182]

    Other reason

  609. Swan KL, Weinzimer SA, Dziura JD, Steil GM, Voskanyan GR, Steffen AT, Martin ML, Tamborlane WV. Effect of puberty on the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of insulin pump therapy in youth with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(1):44–6. [PubMed: 17909083]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  610. Swift PG. Diabetes education in children and adolescents. Pediatr Diabetes. 2009;10 Suppl 12:51–7. [PubMed: 19754618]

    No original data

  611. Szewczyk L, Piekarski R, Noczynska A, Bieniasz J, Wisniowiecka M. The feeling of the quality of life in children with type 1 diabetes treated with personal insulin pump. Diabetes Technol. Ther. 2011;13(2):276–277.

    Other reason

  612. Takazakura E, Makino H, Terada Y, Tsuji H. An attempt to control brittle diabetes by continuous intraperitoneal insulin infusion: Comparison with conventional intensified insulin therapy and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. J. JPN. DIABETES SOC. 84;27(11):1207–1213.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  613. Takazakura E, Ohsawa K, Hayakawa T, Usui C, Makino H. Effect of long-term treatment with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) on progression of diabetic complications in IDDM. J. JPN. DIABETES SOC. 92;35(12):985–991.

    No concurrent comparison group

  614. Talaulicar M, Willms B. [Insulin therapy in practice]. ZFA (Stuttgart) 83;59(19):1067–74. [PubMed: 6351464]

    No original data

  615. Tamborlane WV, Boland EA, Ahern JH. Insulin pump therapy in children and adolescents. Diabetes Nutr Metab. 2002;15(6):422–5. [PubMed: 12678461]

    No original data

  616. Tamborlane WV, Champion MC, Rizza RA, Service FJ, Bergenstal RM. Observations on control of glycemia with conventional insulin therapy or continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Diabetes. 85;34 Suppl 3:22–6. [PubMed: 3894125]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  617. Tamborlane WV, Slover R, Criego A, Daniels M, Foster CM, McEvoy RC, Orlowski C, Weinzimer S, White N, Willi SM. Improved glucose control with sensor-augmented pump therapy in youth with type 1 diabetes and elevated HbA1c levels on multiple daily injection therapy in the STAR 3 Study. Diabetologia. 2010;53:S401.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  618. Tamborlane W, Puklin J, Bergman M. Insulin pump treatment of diabetes: Two year follow-up of microvascular complications. CLIN. RES. 82;30(2):405A.

    Does not apply to a key question

  619. Tanae A, Kagawa J, Nozaki K, Hashimoto N, Hibi I. Improvement of initial remission rate by introduction of CSII. Acta Paediatr Jpn. 87;29(3):401–7. [PubMed: 3144869]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  620. Tanenberg R, Bode B, Lane W, Levetan C, Mestman J, Harmel AP, Tobian J, Gross T, Mastrototaro J. Use of the Continuous Glucose Monitoring System to guide therapy in patients with insulin-treated diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Mayo Clin Proc. 2004;79(12):1521–6. [PubMed: 15595336]

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  621. Tansey MJ, Tanner JP. Association between satisfaction with and utilization of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM): Results from the juvenile diabetes research foundation (JDRF) CGM randomized clinical trial. Diabetes. 2009;58

    Case series or cross-sectional

  622. Tater D, Zirinis P, Kerlan V, Codet JP, Bercovici JP. [Free blood insulin in insulin pump therapy or multiple injections]. Presse Med. 86;15(28):1332–3. [PubMed: 2950402]

    Observational study that does not report on macrovascular, microvascular, maternal, or fetal outcomes

  623. Tattersall RB, Gale EA. Infusion-pump treatment of diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 79;301(5):268. [PubMed: 449997]

    No original data

  624. Terranova R, Lombardo A, Spitaleri A, Motta L, Gorgone G, Amantia L. [Hemorheologic and retinal microcirculatory aspects of diabetics undergoing treatment with human insulin using microinfusors]. Minerva Endocrinol. 84;9(2):197–203. [PubMed: 6503906]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  625. Testa MA, Puklin JE, Sherwin RS, Simonson DC. Clinical predictors of retinopathy and its progression in patients with type I diabetes during CSII or conventional insulin treatment. Diabetes. 85;34 Suppl 3:61–8. [PubMed: 3894129]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  626. The Dusseldorf Study Group Comparison of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and intensified conventional therapy in the treatment of Type 1 diabetes: a two year randomized study. Diab. Nutr. Metab. 2006;3:203–212.

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  627. Thielen V, Place J, Gerbaud S, Scheen A, Bringer J, Renard E. Education on sensor-augmented pump use improves glucose control in type 1 diabetic patients. Diabetes Metab. 2010;36(2):170–1. [PubMed: 20153675]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  628. Thielen V, Radermecker RP, Renard E, Bringer J, Scheen AJ. [Therapeutic education and continuous glucose monitoring in insulin-treated diabetic patients]. Rev Med Suisse. 2010;6(260):1596–600. [PubMed: 20853714]

    Observational study that does not report on macrovascular, microvascular, maternal, or fetal outcomes

  629. Thomas J. Cardiovascular disease risk in type 1 diabetes reduced by intensive treatment. Aust. J. Pharm. 2007;88(1044):78.

    No original data

  630. Thong KY, Fegan PG, Yeap BB. Glycaemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes after provision of public hospital-funded insulin pumps. Med J Aust. 2009;191(5):291. [PubMed: 19740060]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  631. Thuesen L, Christiansen JS, Sorensen KE, Falstie-Jensen NF, Christensen CK, Hermansen K, Mogensen CE, Schmitz A, Henningsen P. [Increased working capacity in insulin-dependent diabetics treated with insulin pumps. A controlled study]. Ugeskr Laeger. 88;150(1):24–7. [PubMed: 3287712]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  632. Thuesen L, Christiansen JS, Sorensen KE, Falstie-Jensen N, Christensen CK, Hermansen K, Mogensen CE, Henningsen P. Exercise capacity and cardiac function in type 1 diabetic patients treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. A controlled study. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 86;46(8):779–84. [PubMed: 3797990]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  633. Tilvis RS, Helve E, Miettinen TA. Improvement of diabetic control by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy changes fatty acid composition of serum lipids and erythrocytes in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. Diabetologia. 86;29(10):690–4. [PubMed: 3803743]

    No concurrent comparison group

  634. Tiselko A, Potin V, Borovik N, Patrakeeva E. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII), glucose monitoring (CGM) and glucose variability (GV) in diabetes type 1 (DM1) patients during pregnancy. Diabetes Technol. Ther. 2011;13(2):278.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  635. Tolwinska J, Glowinska-Olszewska B, Urban M, Florys B, Peczynska J. [Ultrasonographic evaluation of selected parameters of the endothelial function in brachial arteries and IMT measurements in carotid arteries in children with diabetes type 1 using personal insulin pumps--preliminary report]. Endokrynol Diabetol Chor Przemiany Materii Wieku Rozw. 2006;12(3):200–4. [PubMed: 17020656]

    No outcome of interest

  636. Toni S, Reali MF, Fasulo A, Festini P, Medici A, Martinucci ME. The use of insulin pumps improves the metabolic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Arch Dis Child. 2004;89(8):796–7. [PMC free article: PMC1720044] [PubMed: 15269092]

    Other reason

  637. Topper E, Gertner J, Amiel S, Press M, Genel M, Tamborlane WV. Deranged alpha-adrenergic regulation of growth hormone secretion in poorly controlled diabetes: reversal of the exaggerated response to clonidine after continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Pediatr Res. 85;19(6):534–6. [PubMed: 2989759]

    Does not apply to a key question

  638. Torpy JM, Lynm C, Glass RM. Pregnancy and diabetes. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 2008;299(21):2590. [PubMed: 18523228]

    No original data

  639. Torrance T, Franklin V, Greene S. Insulin pumps. Arch Dis Child. 2003;88(11):949–53. [PMC free article: PMC1719341] [PubMed: 14612350]

    No original data

  640. Torres I, Ortego J, Valencia I, Garcia-Palacios MV, Aguilar-Diosdado M. Benefits of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in type 1 diabetes previously treated with multiple daily injections with once-daily glargine and pre-meal analogues. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2009;117(8):378–85. [PubMed: 19629931]

    No concurrent comparison group

  641. Toth EL, Boychuk LR, Kirkland PA. Recurrent infection of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion sites with Mycobacterium fortuitum. Diabetes Care. 95;18(9):1284–5. [PubMed: 8612446]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  642. Tresanchez Trias JM, Mesa Manteca J, Sanmarti Sala AM, Obiols Alfonso G, Pujol Borrell R. [Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: subcutaneous insulin therapy with a portable infusion pump]. Med Clin (Barc) 83;80(9):394–7. [PubMed: 6855331]

    Other reason

  643. Tsuchiya Y, Cho H, Kotoh S, Yokoyama T, Matsuo N. Clinical use of a portable infusion pump and pen-type injector in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Acta Paediatr Jpn. 87;29(3):361–7. [PubMed: 3144863]

    No concurrent comparison group

  644. Tubiana-Rufi N, de Lonlay P, Bloch J, Czernichow P. [Remission of severe hypoglycemic incidents in young diabetic children treated with subcutaneous infusion]. Arch Pediatr. 96;3(10):969–76. [PubMed: 8952790]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  645. Turner RC, Ward EA, Phillips MA, Dornan TL, Ward GM, Hockaday TD. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion or subcutaneous insulin injections. Lancet. 79;2(8140):481. [PubMed: 89550]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  646. Ulahannan T, Mortimer P. Successful treatment of type 1 diabetes complicated by congenital lymphoedema with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and insulin analogue. Br. J. Diabetes Vasc. Dis. 2006;6(2):95–96.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  647. Ulahannan T. Comparison of glucose control by insulin pump, MDI and pre mix insulin in routine clinical practice. Diabetes Technol. Ther. 2011;13(2):279.

    Other reason

  648. Valenzuela JM, Patino AM, McCullough J, Ring C, Sanchez J, Eidson M, Nemery R, Delamater AM. Insulin pump therapy and health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. J Pediatr Psychol. 2006;31(6):650–60. [PubMed: 16322275]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  649. van Ballegooie E. [The treatment of diabetes mellitus with insulin infusion pumps]. Tijdschr Ziekenverpl. 82;35(6):178–82. [PubMed: 7043780]

    Other reason

  650. van Ballegooie E, van Weerden TW. Skin temperature changes during CSII in patients with diabetic neuropathy. Diabetes Care. 84;7(6):612–3. [PubMed: 6510188]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  651. Van Ballegooie E, Reitsma WD, Sluiter WJ, Doorenbos H. Feasibility and efficacy of long-term treatment by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in insulin-dependent diabetes. Neth J Med. 84;27(5):185–92. [PubMed: 6427640]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  652. Van Ballegooie E, Visser GHA, Huisjes HJ. Diabetes regulation in pregnancy by continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. NED. TIJDSCHR. GENEESKD. 83;127(5):218–219.

    No concurrent comparison group

  653. Van Ballegooie E, Visser GH, Laurini RN. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in pregnancy. Neth J Med. 1985;28 Suppl 1:3–6. [PubMed: 4010841]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  654. van den Brande JL. [Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion in children (CSII)]. Tijdschr Kindergeneeskd. 83;51(6):227–9. [PubMed: 6670096]

    Other reason

  655. van Faassen I, Razenberg PP, Simoons-Smit AM, van der Veen EA. Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and inflamed infusion sites with insulin-pump therapy. Diabetes Care. 89;12(2):153–5. [PubMed: 2702898]

    No outcome of interest

  656. Vanamo R. [Treatment of non-insulin dependent diabetes with an insulin infusion system]. Duodecim. 95;111(7):639–43. [PubMed: 8681821]

    Other reason

  657. Vanelli M, Bernasconi S, Rossi S, Rocca M, Turni A, Giovannelli G. [Treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis in children]. Arch Fr Pediatr. 82;39(4):203–7. [PubMed: 6812531]

    Other reason

  658. Varghese M, Walshe K, Bell PM, Hadden DR, Kennedy AL, Weaver JA. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in insulin-dependent diabetes. Ir J Med Sci. 83;152(2):94–8. [PubMed: 6341306]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  659. Vavrinec J, Lebl J, Zizkovsky V. Changes of insulin resistance in diabetic children after treatment with an insulin pump. CESKO-SLOV. PEDIATR. 87;42(7):411–415. [PubMed: 3652260]

    No concurrent comparison group

  660. Vavrinec J, Lebl J, Zizkovsky V, Dvorak P, Snajderova M. [Changes in insulin resistance in diabetic children after treatment with an insulin pump]. Cesk Pediatr. 87;42(7):411–5. [PubMed: 3652260]

    Other reason

  661. Viberti GC, Bilous RW, Mackintosh D, Bending JJ, Keen H. Long term correction of hyperglycaemia and progression of renal failure in insulin dependent diabetes. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 83;286(6365):598–602. [PMC free article: PMC1546810] [PubMed: 6402163]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  662. Vozar J, Kusinova F, Komornik J, Mikulecky M, Ondrejka P. [Comparison of the effects of conventional insulin therapy and the insulin infusion pump on blood glucose values in pregnant diabetics]. Bratisl Lek Listy. 86;85(5):570–7. [PubMed: 3521790]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  663. Wainstein J, Metzger M, Wexler ID, Cohen J, Raz I. The use of continuous insulin delivery systems in severely insulin-resistant patients. Diabetes Care. 2001;24(7):1299. [PubMed: 11423521]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  664. Waldhausl W, Freyler H, Kiss A. [Hypoglycemia and other complications with continuous s.c. insulin infusion]. HYPOGLYKAMIE UND ANDERE KOMPLIKATIONEN BEI KONTINUIERLICHER SUBKUTANER INSULININFUSION (CSII) AKTUEL. ENDOKRINOL. STOFFWECHSEL. 82;3(2):74.

    No concurrent comparison group

  665. Walsh J, Roberts R, Bailey T. Guidelines for insulin dosing in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion using new formulas from a retrospective study of individuals with optimal glucose levels. J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2010;4(5):1174–81. [PMC free article: PMC2956816] [PubMed: 20920437]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  666. Walter CJ. Diabetic retinopathy. Aust J Ophthalmol. 81;9(2):168–9. [PubMed: 7028020]

    Does not evaluate CSII or rt-CGM

  667. Ward JD. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII): therapeutic options. Diabet Med. 84;1(1):47–50. [PubMed: 6242777]

    No original data

  668. Warmolts JR, Mendell JR, O'Dorisio TM, Cataland S. Comparison of the effects of continuous subcutaneous infusion and split-mixed injection of insulin on nerve function in type I diabetes mellitus. J Neurol Sci. 87;82(03-Jan):161–9. [PubMed: 3326911]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  669. Weinzimer S, Xing D, Tansey M, Fiallo-Scharer R, Mauras N, Wysocki T, Beck R, Tamborlane W, Ruedy K. FreeStyle navigator continuous glucose monitoring system use in children with type 1 diabetes using glargine-based multiple daily dose regimens: results of a pilot trial Diabetes Research in Children Network (DirecNet) Study Group. Diabetes Care. 2008;31(3):525–7. [PMC free article: PMC2365493] [PubMed: 18096811]

    No concurrent comparison group

  670. Weinzimer S, Xing D, Tansey M, Fiallo-Scharer R, Mauras N, Wysocki T, Beck R, Tamborlane W, Ruedy K. Prolonged use of continuous glucose monitors in children with type 1 diabetes on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion or intensive multiple-daily injection therapy. Pediatr Diabetes. 2009;10(2):91–6. [PubMed: 19175899]

    No concurrent comparison group

  671. Welsh JB, Kannard B, Nogueira K, Kaufman FR, Shah R. Insights from a Large Observational Database of Continuous Glucose Monitoring Adoption, Insulin Pump Usage and Glycemic Control: The CareLink Database. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2010;7 Suppl 3:413–6. [PubMed: 20877255]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  672. Weng J, Li Y, Xu W, Shi L, Zhang Q, Zhu D, Hu Y, Zhou Z, Yan X, Tian H, Ran X, Luo Z, Xian J, Yan L, Li F, Zeng L, Chen Y, Yang L, Yan S, Liu J, Li M, Fu Z, Cheng H. Effect of intensive insulin therapy on beta-cell function and glycaemic control in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: a multicentre randomised parallel-group trial. Lancet. 2008;371(9626):1753–60. [PubMed: 18502299]

    Regular insulin was used in the pump

  673. Wentholt IM, Maran A, Masurel N, Heine RJ, Hoekstra JB, DeVries JH. Nocturnal hypoglycaemia in Type 1 diabetic patients, assessed with continuous glucose monitoring: frequency, duration and associations. Diabet Med. 2007;24(5):527–32. [PubMed: 17381503]

    Does not apply to a key question

  674. Whittemore R, Jeon S, Jaser S, Liberti L, Cahill J, Grey M. Quality of life and metabolic control in school-aged children with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes. 2009;58

    Case series or cross-sectional

  675. Wilke W, Huttl I. [Portable infusion pumps for insulin administration in type I diabetic patients]. Z Arztl Fortbild (Jena) 89;83(9):449–53. [PubMed: 2665333]

    No original data

  676. Wilkinson J, McFann K, Chase HP. Factors affecting improved glycaemic control in youth using insulin pumps. Diabet Med. 2010;27(10):1174–7. [PubMed: 20854386]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  677. Williams S, Honeywell M, Hill A, Singh A, Ghazvini P. The Guardian REAL-TIME continuous glucose monitoring system. 2007;32(12):62–65.

    No original data

  678. Wilson DM, Buckingham BA, Kunselman EL, Sullivan MM, Paguntalan HU, Gitelman SE. A two-center randomized controlled feasibility trial of insulin pump therapy in young children with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(1):15–9. [PubMed: 15616227]

    No outcome of interest

  679. Wilson DP, Endres RK. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) J Okla State Med Assoc. 85;78(7):211–4. [PubMed: 4032097]

    Does not apply to a key question

  680. Wilson MA, Smith CB. Nutrient intake, glycemic control, and body mass index in adolescents using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and those using traditional insulin therapy. Diabetes Educ. 2003;29(2):230–2. 235–6, 238. [PubMed: 12728751]

    Other reason

  681. Wolff-McDonagh P, Kaufmann J, Foreman S, Wisotsky S, Wisotsky JA, Wexler C. Using insulin pump therapy in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Educ. 2010;36(4):657–65. [PubMed: 20571144]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  682. Worm D, Nielsen LR, Mathiesen ER, Norgaard K. Continuous glucose monitoring system with an alarm: a tool to reduce hypoglycemic episodes in pregnancy with diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(12):2759–60. [PubMed: 17130224]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  683. Wredling RA, Adamson UK, Lins PE. Alteration of the risk factor paradigm for discontinuance of insulin pump therapy. Diabetes Care. 94;17(8):942–3. [PubMed: 7956649]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  684. Wu YP, Graves MM, Roberts MC, Mitchell AC. Is insulin pump therapy better than injection for adolescents with diabetes? Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010;89(2):121–5. [PubMed: 20488572]

    Case series or cross-sectional

  685. Wudi K, Madarasz E, Nadasdi A, Turi Z, Magenheim R, Zsirai L, Csakany GM, Kerenyi Z. Comparison of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and multiple daily insulin injections during pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Technol. Ther. 2011;13(2):236–237.

    Case series or cross-sectional

  686. Wyatt S. Technology useful in managing diabetes during pregnancy. Aust Nurs J. 2008;16(2):34. [PubMed: 18780715]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  687. Yagasaki H, Kobayashi K, Saitou T, Nagamine K, Mitsui Y, Mochizuki M, Kobayashi K, Cho H, Ohyama K, Amemiya S, Nakazawa S. Nocturnal blood glucose and IGFBP-1 changes in type 1 diabetes: Differences in the dawn phenomenon between insulin regimens. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2010;118(3):195–9. [PubMed: 19834874]

    Not in an outpatient setting

  688. Yamaguchi T, Kanatsuka A, Hashimoto N, Makino H, Yoshida S. Influence of age on insulin requirement in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients treated with CSII. Horm Metab Res. 86;18(11):786–7. [PubMed: 3539739]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  689. Yoo HJ, An HG, Park SY, Ryu OH, Kim HY, Seo JA, Hong EG, Shin DH, Kim YH, Kim SG, Choi KM, Park IB, Yu JM, Baik SH. Use of a real time continuous glucose monitoring system as a motivational device for poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008;82(1):73–9. [PubMed: 18701183]

    Other reason

  690. Yudkin JS. Insulin infusion in diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction Insulin should be continued for 12 months after acute event. BMJ. 97;314(7074):145–6. [PMC free article: PMC2125603] [PubMed: 9006488]

    No original data

  691. Zaluski S, Calvet L, Selam JL, Mirouze J, Martin G. [Vitreous fluorophotometry in diabetics using an insulin pump: absent or minimal retinopathy]. Ophtalmologie. 88;2(2):101–4. [PubMed: 3247141]

    Other reason

  692. Zaluski S, Millet P, Selam JL. [Course of the proliferative forms of diabetic retinopathy in patients with insulin pump]. Ophtalmologie. 87;1(3):393–5. [PubMed: 3153902]

    Other reason

  693. Zaluski S, Millet P, Selam JL, Navarre L, Esmenjaud E, Karsenti G. [Course of diabetic retinopathy under the insulin pump]. Bull Soc Ophtalmol Fr. 85;85(5):601–13. [PubMed: 3835027]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  694. Ziegler D, Dannehl K, Koschinsky T, Toeller M, Gries FA. Comparison of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and intensified conventional therapy in the treatment of Type I diabetes: A two-year randomized study. DIABETES NUTR. METAB. CLIN. EXP. 90;3(3):203–213.

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  695. Zisser H, Jovanovic L. OmniPod Insulin Management System: patient perceptions, preference, and glycemic control. Diabetes Care. 2006;29(9):2175. [PubMed: 16936173]

    No comparison with placebo or usual care

  696. Zucchini S, Scipione M, Balsamo C, Maltoni G, Rollo A, Molinari E, Mangoni L, Cicognani A. Comparison Between Sensor-Augmented Insulin Therapy with Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion or Multiple Daily Injections in Everyday Life: 3-Day Analysis of Glucose Patterns and Sensor Accuracy in Children. Diabetes Technol Ther. 2011 [PubMed: 21854193]

    Observational study that does not report on macrovascular, microvascular, maternal, or fetal outcomes

Cover of Methods for Insulin Delivery and Glucose Monitoring: Comparative Effectiveness
Methods for Insulin Delivery and Glucose Monitoring: Comparative Effectiveness [Internet].
Comparative Effectiveness Reviews, No. 57.
Golden SH, Brown T, Yeh HC, et al.

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