Table 1Summary of strategies addressing Key Question 1, by category

Strategies
Reduce or manage less-urgent demand for health care servicesBiological countermeasures (12 studies)2933,3538,4143
  • Point of dispensing strategies (e.g., centralized vs. hybrid structure; eliminating conventional steps; using simulation and decision support to optimize staffing)
  • Optimizing strategies for allocating medication from stockpiles (e.g., level of preallocation, level of tailoring to population needs, amount for prophylaxis vs. treatment)
  • Mass vaccination, contact tracing, and school closure
  • Mass distribution of antibiotics using postal carriers
Nonbiological countermeasures (3 studies)34,39,40
  • Distribution of surgical masks or N95 respirators to the public
  • Restrict nonurgent demand for hospital care
  • Training public health officials in their legal authority to implement strategies to limit the spread of pandemics
Optimize use of existing resourcesLoad sharing (2 studies)44,45
  • Central command structure to optimize distribution of patients to hospitals
  • Establishment of site emergency management centers in low vulnerability locations
  • Robust and interoperable emergency communications systems
  • Coordinated regional trauma systems to facilitate the rapid transfer of hospitalized and special needs patients
Augment existing resourcesTemporary facilities (3 studies)41,46,47
  • Alternate-site surge capacity facilities
  • Mobile field hospitals
  • Activating mobile provider units from other Federal agencies to provide hospital surge capacity
Mutual aid agreements (1 study)32
  • Mutual aid agreements that allow transshipment of antivirals between counties
Crisis standards of careNone

From: Results

Cover of Allocation of Scarce Resources During Mass Casualty Events
Allocation of Scarce Resources During Mass Casualty Events.
Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 207.
Timbie JW, Ringel JS, Fox DS, et al.

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