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What is the effect on outcomes of using scoring systems in children and young people with suspected/confirmed meningococcal septicaemia?

Bibliographic informationReason for exclusion
J. T. Algren, S. Lal, S. A. Cutliff, and B. J. Richman. Predictors of outcome in acute meningococcal infection in children. Critical Care Medicine 21 (3):447–452, 1993This study is a prospective evaluation of the prognostic ability of a score combining predictor variables. The prospective evaluation includes only 22 children.
B. M. Ansari, D. B. Davies, and J. M. Boyce. A comparative study of adverse factors in meningococcaemia and meningococcal meningitis. Postgrad Med J. Nov;55(649):780–3, 1979This study describes the retrospective development of a prognostic score.
E. Alhan, N. Onenli, N. Evliyaoglu, B. Yuksel, N. Bozdemir, E. Kocabas, and N. Aksaray. The risk factors affecting prognosis in meningococcal diseases in children. Annals of Medical Sciences 5 (1):18–22, 1996This study describes the retrospective development of a prognostic score.
N. Barquet, P. Domingo, J. A. Cayla, J. Gonzalez, C. Rodrigo, P. Fernandez-Viladrich, F. A. Moraga-Llop, F. Marco, J. Vazquez, J. A. Saez-Nieto, J. Casal, J. Canela, and M. Foz. Prognostic factors in meningococcal disease. Development of a bedside predictive model and scoring system. Barcelona Meningococcal Disease Surveillance Group.[see comment]. JAMA 278 (6):491–496, 1997This study describes the development of a prognostic score in people of all ages. The score is mainly used in adults with meningococcal disease.
P. Bjark, T. W. Gedde-Dahl, E. A. Hoiby, J. N. Bruun. Prognosis of meningococcal septicaemia LANCET II 861–862, 1987This is a letter.
A. Castellanos-Ortega and M. gado-Rodriguez. Comparison of the performance of two general and three specific scoring systems for meningococcal septic shock in children. Critical Care Medicine 28 (8):2967–2973, 2000This study is a retrospective comparison of prognostic scores. Blinding of the investigators to patient outcome during the assessment and comparison is not reported.
A. Castellanos-Ortega, M. gado-Rodriguez, J. Llorca, Buron P. Sanchez, Bartolome S. Mencia, Rubio A. Soult, Manso G. Milano, Sampedro P. Dominguez, Montero R. Blanco, Nunez A. Rodriguez, Perez E. Zambrano, Galan C. Rey, Negueruela N. Lopez, and Saenz R. Reig. A new prognostic scoring system for meningococcal septic shock in children. Comparison with three other scoring systems.[see comment]. Intensive Care Medicine 28 (3):341–351, 2002This study describes the retrospective development and validation of a prognostic score.
Duncan H, Hutchison J, Parshuram CS. The Pediatric Early Warning System score: a severity of illness score to predict urgent medical need in hospitalized children.This study describes the development of a new prognostic score with validation using case control design. This is not the population of interest: it includes all children admitted to secondary care.
H. P. Duncan. The paediatric early warning score. British Journal of Intensive Care 17 (4):133–139, 2007This is a narrative review.
M. S. Festa, S. M. Tibby, D. Taylor, A. Durward, P. Habibi, and I. A. Murdoch. Early application of generic mortality risk scores in presumed meningococcal disease.[see comment]. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 6 (1):9–13, 2005This study assesses the prognostic accuracy of generic risk scores in tertiary care.
T. Flaegstad, P. I. Kaaresen, T. Stokland, and T. Gutteberg. Factors associated with fatal outcome in childhood meningococcal disease. Acta Paediatrica 84 (10):1137–1142, 1995This study describes the retrospective development and validation of a prognostic score.
T. W. Gedde-Dahl, P. Bjark, E. A. Høiby, J. H. Høst, and J. N. Bruun Severity of meningococcal disease: assessment by factors and scores and implications for patient management. Rev Infect Dis. Nov–Dec;12(6):973–92, 1990This study describes the retrospective development and of prognostic scores.
S. Hachimi-Idrissi, L. Corne, and J. Ramet. Evaluation of scoring systems in acute meningococcaemia.[see comment]. European Journal of Emergency Medicine 5 (2):225–230, 1998This study is a retrospective comparison of prognostic scores in a small number of patients. Blinding of the investigators to patient outcome during the assessment and comparison is not reported.
E. K. jayi-Obe, E. Lodi, A. S. Alkali, M. Galbati, C. Rooney, B. Mannoni, P. Grim, A. Nasidi, and I. Mohammed. Prognostic scores for use in African meningococcal epidemics. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 76 (2):149–152, 1998This is not a relevant population.
A. Kahn and D. Blum. Factors for poor prognosis in fulminating meningococcemia. Conclusions from observations of 67 childhood cases. Clin Pediatr (Phila). Sep;17(9):680, 1978This study describes the initial development and validation of a prognostic score.
R. F. Kornelisse, J. A. Hazelzet, W. C. Hop, L. Spanjaard, M. H. Suur, der van, V, and Groot R. de. Meningococcal septic shock in children: clinical and laboratory features, outcome, and development of a prognostic score. Clinical Infectious Diseases 25 (3):640–646, 1997This study describes the development of a new prognostic score. The new score is compared with other scores in the derivation set.
F. Leclerc, R. Beuscart, and B. Guillois. Prognostic factors of severe infectious purpura in children. Intensive Care Medicine 11 (3):140–143, 1985This study describes the development of a new prognostic score based on questionnaire with validation in 38 children only.
F. Leclerc, F. Delepoulle, J. F. Diependaele, A. Martinot, V. Hue, V. Flurin, C. Fourier, and M. Chenaud. Severity scores in meningococcal septicemia and severe infectious purpura with shock. Intensive Care Medicine 21 (3):264–265, 1995This study does not address the clinical question of interest. The study looks at the changes in validity of scoring systems over time.
S. Leteurtre, F. Leclerc, A. Martinot, R. Cremer, C. Fourier, A. Sadik, and B. Grandbastien. Can generic scores (Pediatric Risk of Mortality and Pediatric Index of Mortality) replace specific scores in predicting the outcome of presumed meningococcal septic shock in children?[see comment]. Critical Care Medicine 29 (6):1239–1246, 2001This study assesses the performance characteristics of severity scores in tertiary care.
L. S. Lewis. Prognostic factors in acute meningococcaemia. Arch Dis Child. Jan;54(1):44–8, 1979This study does not address the clinical question of interest.
Q. Mok and W. Butt. The outcome of children admitted to intensive care with meningococcal septicaemia. Intensive Care Medicine 22 (3):259–263, 1996This study is a retrospective comparison of prognostic scores in a small number of patients. Blinding of the investigators to patient outcome during the assessment and comparison is not reported.
P. M. Niklasson, P. Lundbergh, and T. Strandell. Prognostic Factors in meningococcal disease. Scand J Infect Dis.This study describes the retrospective development of a new prognostic score.
3(1):17–25, 1971 W. Nurnberger, A. Platonov, H. Stannigel, V. B. Beloborodov, I. Michelmann, Kries R. von, S. Burdach, and U. Gobel. Definition of a new score for severity of generalized Neisseria meningitidis infection. European Journal of Pediatrics 154 (11):896–900, 1995This study includes only 17 children.
D. Shears, S. Nadel, J. Gledhill, and M. E. Garralda. Short-term psychiatric adjustment of children and their parents following meningococcal disease. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 6 (1):39–43, 2005This study does not address the clinical question of interest.
D. Shears, S. Nadel, J. Gledhill, F. Gordon, and M. E. Garralda. Psychiatric adjustment in the year after meningococcal disease in childhood. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 46 (1):76–82, 2007This study does not address the clinical question of interest.
P. S. Silva, M. C. Fonseca, S. B. Iglesias, W. B. Carvalho, R. M. Bussolan, and I. W. Freitas. Comparison of two different severity scores (Paediatric Risk of Mortality [PRISM] and the Glasgow Meningococcal Sepsis Prognostic Score [GMSPS]) in meningococcal disease: preliminary analysis. Annals of Tropical Paediatrics 21 (2):135–140, 2001This study assesses the performance characteristics of severity scores in tertiary care.
E. R. Stiehm, and D. S. Damrosch. Factors in the prognosis of meningococcal infection. Review of 63 cases with emphasis on recognition and management of the severely ill patient. J Pediatr. 1966 Mar;68(3):457–67.
Comment in: Intensive Care Med. Feb;29(2):333; author reply 334, 2003
This study describes the retrospective development of a new prognostic score.
T. Stokland, T. Flaegstad, and T. J. Gutteberg A clinical score for the prediction of outcome of patients with meningococcal infection. Acta Paediatr Suppl 322: 12, 1985This abstract describes the retrospective development of a new prognostic scoring system.
L. J. Tesoro and S. M. Selbst. Factors affecting outcome in meningococcal infections.[see comment]. American Journal of Diseases of Children 145 (2):218–220, 1991This study is a retrospective evaluation of the Stiehm and Damrosch score. The investigators are not reported to be blinded to patient outcome.
A. P. Thomson, J. A. Sills, and C. A. Hart. Validation of the Glasgow Meningococcal Septicemia Prognostic Score: a 10-year retrospective survey.[see comment]. Critical Care Medicine 19 (1):26–30, 1991This study is a retrospective validation of the GMSPS. The investigators are not noted to be blinded to patient outcome.
B. Tuysuz, I. Ozlu, D. Y. Aji, and A. Erginel. Prognostic factors in meningococcal disease and a new scoring system. Acta Paediatrica 82 (12):1053–1056, 1993This study describes the retrospective development of a new prognostic score.
M. J. van Brakel, A. J. van Vught, and R. J. Gemke. Pediatric risk of mortality (PRISM) score in meningococcal disease.[see comment]. European Journal of Pediatrics 159 (4):232–236, 2000This is a retrospective evaluation of the PRISM score in children with meningococcal disease.

From: Appendix F, Excluded studies

Cover of Bacterial Meningitis and Meningococcal Septicaemia
Bacterial Meningitis and Meningococcal Septicaemia: Management of Bacterial Meningitis and Meningococcal Septicaemia in Children and Young People Younger than 16 Years in Primary and Secondary Care.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 102.
National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health (UK).
London: RCOG Press; 2010.
Copyright © 2010, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

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