Table 13Evidence gaps and future research

Evidence GapReasonType of Studies to Consider
Absence of data for patients with mechanical heart valvesInsufficient informationMulticenter RCTs
Uncertain effects on patient experience and health-related quality of lifeInsufficient informationMulticenter RCTs and/or qualitative studies
Uncertain relative benefits across and within newer oral anticoagulant drug classesInsufficient informationMulticenter RCTs comparing newer anticoagulants with each other and network meta-analyses
Uncertain effects on health system costsInsufficient informationBudget impact analysis
Effects on thrombosis and systemic embolism when newer anticoagulants are stopped prior to invasive proceduresInsufficient informationPharmacokinetic studies; observational studies
Management of patients on newer anticoagulants with bleeding complicationsInsufficient informationRCTs; observational studies
Adverse effects with long-term use and in usual clinical practiceInsufficient informationObservational studies

Abbreviation: RCT = randomized controlled trial

From: SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION

Cover of Comparative Effectiveness of Warfarin and Newer Oral Anticoagulants for the Long-Term Prevention and Treatment of Arterial and Venous Thromboembolism
Comparative Effectiveness of Warfarin and Newer Oral Anticoagulants for the Long-Term Prevention and Treatment of Arterial and Venous Thromboembolism [Internet].
Adam SS, McDuffie JR, Ortel TL, et al.
Washington (DC): Department of Veterans Affairs; 2012 Apr.

PubMed Health. A service of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.